A disease characterized by the progressive atrophy (loss) of muscle casued by hardening of nervous tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal cord.
"Disease of Self"
A developmental disorder that varies in its severity with the patient, characterized by withdrawal from outward reality and impaired development in social conduct and communication.
The patient suffers from paralysis of the face muscles on one side (called unilateral) due to damage to the seventh cranial nerve.
An inflammation of the cerebellum.
Symptoms of this disease include a loss of muscle coordination and equilibrium.
Affects arterties channeling blood to the brain, placing the brain at great risk of the damage that would result from a blow aneurysm.
A circulatory problem caused by the weakened wall of a blood vessel.
The vessels gradually close due to the accumulation of fatty plaques, reducing the flow of blood to the brain.
A moving blood clot in an artery of the brain
The condition of a stationary blood clot in an artery of the brain.
The condition of bleeding from blood vessels associated with the cerebrum.
A condition that appears at birth or shortly afterward as a partial muscle paralysis.
Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off, resulting in the irreversible death of brain cells followed by losses of mental function or death.
A general term describing several levels of abnormally decreased consciousness.
An injury to soft tissue resulting from a blow or violent shaking.
The cerebrum undergoes physical damage that often results in hemorrhage (bleeding) and the subsequent loss of brain cells and mental function.
Inflammation of the brain.
The softening of brain tissue
A brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, including convulsions and temporary loss of consciousness.
"To be seized upon"
A neoplasm (tumor) of glial cells.
A congenital disease caused by an abnormally increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain ventricles of a child before the cranial sutures have sealed, resulting in enlargement of the cranium, and in many cases, brain damage.
A benign tumor of the meninges usually arising from the arachnoid mater and occurring within the superior sagittal sinus on top of the brain.
An inflammation of the meninges. It is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection.
A protrusion of the meninges, usually caused by a defect in the skull or spinal column.
A term associated with a protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord through a defective opening in the spinal colum.
A disease characterized by the deterioration of the myelin sheath covering axons within the brain.
Inflammation of the spinal cord
A sleep disorder characterized by sudden uncontrollable espisodes of sleep, attacks of paralysis, ans hypangogic hallucinations (dreams intruding into the wakeful state).
Inflammation of a nerve
Inflammation of many nerves
A tumor originating from nerve cells
A disease affecting any part of the nervous system
When many nerves are affected
Muslces of the legs and lower body are paralyzed
One limb is paralyzed
Paralysis on one side of the body
Paralysis form the neck down including all four limbs.
A chronic degenerative disease of the brain characterized by tremors, rigidity, and shuffling gait.
Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord, often resulting in paralysis.
Commonly referred to as polio.
An acute, often fatal, infection of the central nervous system that is caused by a virus transmitted to human by the bite of an infected animal.
The condition of the inflammation of the ventricles of the brain.
Aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen
The primary type of pain managment that is used during surigcal procedures.
Physician who manages anesthesia
Trained specialist who administers anethesia
Nerve Block Anesthesia
An injection made into a nerve to block the conduction of impulese between the nerve and the CNS.
A diagnostic procedure that reveals blood flow to the brain by X-ray photography
Capable of identifying cerebral aneurysm and cerebral thrombosis and tracking the damge that might occur following a cerebral hemorrhage.
A procedure involving the use of a computer to interpret a series of images and construct from them a three-dimensional view of the brain.
The surgical removal of part of the cranium
An incision is made through the cranium to provide surgical access to the brain.
The surgical knife used to perform a craniotomy
Ultrasound (sound wave) technology is used to record brain structures in the search for abnormalities.
Effectual Drug Therapy
A general type of treatment to manage neurological disorders.
Medication that reduces patient anxiety levels
Control convulsions occurring in diseases such as epilepsy.
Effective against fever
Reduce hallucinations and confusion
Tranquilizers and Sedatives
Used to calm agitated and anxious patients
Produce stupor or induce sleep
A diagnostic procedure that records electrical impluses of the brain to measure brain activity
The injuction of a spinal block anesthetic into the epidural space external to the spinal cord.
Evoked Potential Studies
A group of diagnostic tests that measure change in brain waves during particular stimuli to determine brain function.
Surgical removal of a ganglion
The withdrawal (aspiration) of CSF from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the spinal cord.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Powerful magnets are used to observe soft tissues in the body including the brain. It is used to target brain tumors, brain trauma, MS, and other conditions.
It is an X-ray photograph of the spinal cord following injection of a contrast dye.
The procedure of a myelogram
The surgical removal of a nerve
The study and medical practice of the nervous system
It is also the department of a hospital or clinic where medical procedures on the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are performed.
An adjective associated with the general field of neurology
One who participates in neurological research
A physician who specializes in neurology
A surgical physician in neurology
The procedure of separating a nerve by removing unwanted adhesions
The surgical repair of a nerve
Suture of a nerve
Incision into a nerve
Positron Emission Tomography
A scan using an injected radioactive chemical to provide a map of blood flow within the body that can be correlated to function.
Useful diagnostic procedure evaluating brain function
The branch of medicin that addreses disorders of the brain resulting in mental and emotional disturbances.
A physician practicing in the field of pscyhiatry
A drug therapy targeting the brain
Psychiatric therapy, to improve a patient's quality of life.
The study of human behavior
"study of the mind"
Uses applied psychology to treat patients suffering from behavioral disordes and emotional trauma.
The technique used in treating behavioral and emotional issues
A surgical incision into a nerve root.
A series of diagnostic tests performed to observe the body's response to touch stimuli.
Useful in assessing stroke, head trauma, brith defects, and other neurological challenges.
The tests include deep tendon reflexes (DTR) involving percussion at the patellar tendon and elsewhere and Babinski reflex involving stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot.
A procedure where several branches of the vagus nerve are severed to reduce acid secretion into the stomach in an effort to prevent the reoccurrence of peptic ulcer.
Occurs when this mental state dominates behavior. Usually an acute response that includes restlessness, psychological tension, tachycardia, and shortness of breath.
Attention Deficit Disorder
A neurological disorder characterized by short attention span and poor concentration.
Usually associated with school-age children but can also affect adults and makes learning very difficult.
"pertaining to two poles"
Affects the cognitive functions of the cerebrum, causing alternating periods of high energy and mental confusion (mania) with low energy and mental depression.
An impairment of mental function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion.
Often associated with Alzheimer disease.
"Condition of difficult reading"
Some individuals have a reading handicap that has neurological cause, in which some letters and numbers are reversed in order by the brain.
An emotional disorder of abnormally high psychomotor activity, which includes excitement, a rapid movement of ideas, unstable attention, sleeplessness, and confusion between reality and imagination.
An individual believes oneself to be a person of great fame or wealth.
Which is an obsessive fascination with fire
An emotional disorder involving a counterproductive way of dealing with mental stress.
A person experiencing persistent delusions of persecution resulting in mistrust and combativeness.
An irrational, obsessive fear.
Often used as a suffix when describing a particular fear.
Fear of spiders
Abnormal fear of public places
Abnormal fear of heights
The fear of developing a phobia.
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
Many individuals who have experienced a severe mental strain or emotional trauma, such a military combat or a physical assault, suffer from an acute condition that includes sleeplessness, anxiety, and paranoia.
A general term for a mental or emotional disorder.
Disease of the mind.
A individual suffering from a gross distortion or disorganization of their mental capacity, emotional response, and capacity to recognize reality and relate to others may be diagnosed with this disease.
"condition of the mind"
"Pertaining to mind and body"
It refers to the influence of the mind over bodily functions, especially disease.
Among some people, their mind creates symptoms that suggest an illness when physical signs are absent.
Most common form of psychosis
"Condition of split mind"
Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and extensive withdrawal from other people and the outside world.
A common symptom of an inflammation of the eyelid.
A procedure to repair the eyelid when inflammation damages the eyelid
Transparency of the lens is reduced
Usually a normal part of the aging process
When bacteria infect the conjunctiva membrane, causing inflammation.
Commonly known as "pink eye"
The presence of rocky particles in the apparatus.
Inflammation of the lacrimal apparatus
Inflammation in the adjacent sinuses
Common cause of blindness
Occurs when the retina tears away from the choroid layer of the eye.
Can caused by a severe blow to the head, high blood pressure, or old age.
Condition of double vision
May result from weakened extrinsic eye muscles, defects in the lens, or a condition of the brain.
Disease of the eye.
A loss of vision occurs when the fluid pressure within the anterior chamber of the eyeball (called intraocular pressure) rises above normal.
Rise of fluid pressure in this disease is caused by a blockage in a small opening that normally drains the fluid.
An infection of the meibomian gland produces a local swelling of the eyelid.
A chronic form of hordeolum
Bacterial infection of the iris
When the cornea becomes inflamed
Progressive deterioration of the macula lutea leads to a loss of visual focus
Most common cause is age
Softening of the eye
Paralysis of the eye
In this eye disease, the extrinsic eye muscles are unable to move the eyeball.
Loss of blodd by hemorrhage of the eye
A general term for a disease of the retina
Conditions of the eye that result in a reduction of vision
Reduction in vision due to age
The normal condition of the eye
The curvature of the eye is defective to produce blurred vision
A lens damaged by a cataract is surgically removed and replace with a donor lens
A procedure where the injured cornea is removed and replaced by implantation of a donor cornea.
A procedure wher a channel is surgically created between the nasal cavity and lacrimal sac to promote drainage.
Laser-Assisted in situ keratomileusis
It is the use of a laser to reshape the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct vision disorders, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
A health professional (not a physician) trained to examine eyes to correct vision problems and eye disorders.
A physician who specializes in the study and treatment of diseases associated with the eyes.
Inflammation of the mastoid (an area of the temporal bone of the skull housing the middle and internal ear)
A chronic disease of the inner ear, includes symptoms of dizziness and tinnitus
Ringing in the ears
General term for inflammation of the ear
One form of otitis in which the external auditory canal is involved causing sensations of pain.
Otitis Media (OM)
One form of otitis where the middle ear is involved to cause pain and a temporary loss of hearing.
Relatively common among children, is caused by bacterial infection, and often requires antibiotic therapy.
Diseases of the ear
Pus containing discharge appears in the external auditory canal
Condition of pain in the ear
An abnormal formation of bone within the ear, usually between the stapes and the oval window of the middle ear
A visual examination of the ear using a handheld instrument
The sensation of whirling motion
If it is chronic, it may be an indication of an inner ear infection or dysfunction within the brain.
To set in motion
Excessive, abnormally high, or above
Deficient, abnormally low, or below
Alongside or abnormal
Sweet or sugar
Condition of blood
Surgical excision or removal
Incision or to cut
Fasting blood sugar
Glucose tolerance test
Hormone replacement therapy
Postprandial blood sugar
Radioactive iodine uptake
Abnormally high hormone production
Abnormally low hormone production
The study of secreting within
The field of medicine focusing on the study and treatment of endocrine disorders
A physician who practices the "study of secreting within", or endocrinology
A general term for a disease of the endocrine system.
The condition of acid in the body.
Occurs when carbon dioxide accumulates in tissues to form carbonic acid.
A symptom of diabetes mellitus and may also be caused by respiratory or kidney disorders.
A sign that includes enlargement of bone structure
"Abnormally large extremity"
The abnormal protrusion of the eyes
Classic symptom of excessive activity of the thyroid gland and literally means "outside eyes."
An abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a tumor; lack of iodine in the diet, or an infection
A common symptom of thyroid gland disease is a swelling on the anterior side of the neck in the location of the thyroid gland.
A symptom of excessive body hair in a masculine pattern.
Excessive production of androgens in women may also lead to muscle and bone growth. This is te resulting pattern of masculinization
An excessive amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine and is a symptom of diabetes mellitus and starvation.
Condition of many thirsts
An abnormal state of excessive thirst occurs during certain disorders of the pituitary gland or the pancreas.
The production of abnormally large volumes of urine.
Symptom of diabetes mellitus
The general term for an inflammation of a gland
Any disease of a gland
A malignant tumor that arises from epithelial tissue to form a glandular or glandlike pattern of cells.
Life-threatening form of cancer
Often develops from a benign tumor of glandular cells
A benign tumor of glandular cells.
May cause excess secretion by the affected gland
Inflammtion of the adrenal gland
It may result from tumor development or infection and is often revealed in women by the symptoms of adrenal virilism
Disease in which one or both of the adrenal glands becomes enlarged
A child suffering from the thyroid gland's inability to produce normal levels of growth hormone at birth may develop this condition.
A reduced mental development and physical growth occur in this condition
A syndrome that is caused by excessive secretion of the hormone cortisole by the adrenal cortex, which affects many organs.
It is characterized by obesity, moon (round) face, hyperglycemia, and muscle weakness.
Common cause is a tumor of the pituitary gland
A disease with an array of symptoms and involving multiple organs
Caused by a hyposecretion of ADH by the pituitary gland.
Characterized by the symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria.
Chronic Disorder of carbohydrate metablosim
Result of resistance of body cells to insulin, or a deficiency or complete lack of insulin production by cells of the pancreas.
Two types: Type 1 and Type 2
Type 1 DM
Usually requires hormone replacement therapy with insulin and appears during childhood or adolescence.
Type 2 DM
Usually appears during adulthood and is often associated with obesity
Can usually be managed with dietary restrictions and regular exercise, and it can be controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs.
Common Symptoms of DM
DM causes large fluctuations in blood sugar levels, if untreated it can lead to circulatory deficiencies that result in kidney damage
Peripheral nerve damage
A form of potentially sight-threatening damge to the eye
The general term for a disease of the endocrine system.
Often the result of either an excessive production of one or more hormones by an endocrine gland or deficient production of one or more hormones
Excessive activity of one or more adrenal glands
Can lead to Cushing syndrome
Abnormally reduced activity of the adrenal gland
May lead to Addison Disease if left untreated
When calcium levels in the blood become abnormally high
The disease ia result of the abnormal release of calcium from bones, which leads to softening of the bones if left untreated.
It is caused by excessive activity of the parthyroid glands.
The condition of abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
It is caused by the abnormally low activity of the parathyroid glands to produce insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH)
"Condition of blood excessive sugar"
The chronic from of the disease often indicates the body may not be producing enough insulin or insulin receptor sites are resistant and may lead to Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Blood sugar levels fall to abnormally low levels.
It is caused by excessive insulin administration or excessive production by the pancreas and is often accompanied by headache, malaise (weakness), tremors, hunger, and anxiety.
If left untreated, it can lead to coma and death
The excessive production of PTH by the parathyroid glands
Usually caused by a tumor, it results in excessive calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia)
PTH levels are reduced and the condition of hypocalcemia occurs
Excessive activity of the thyroid gland produces abnormally high levels of thyroid hormone.
Symptoms include exophthalmos, goiter, rapid heart rate, and weight loss.
One form of chronic hyperthyroidism
Believed to be an autoimmune disease
One form of chronic hyperthyroidism
An acute event that is triggered by infection or trauma and can become life threatening
A disease in which thyroid gland activity becomes deficient, thyroid hormone blood levels drop below normal
Symptoms include slow heart rate, dry skin, low energy, and weight gain.
Chronic form of hypothyroidism
The subcutaneous layer beneath the skin becomes thick and hard and the body retains water, aging the skin prematurely while puffing the face and thickening the tongue and hands
Literally means "swollen mucus"
Disease in which abnormally low amounts of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced by the pituitary gland, which reduces the production of the sex hormones testosterone (produced by male testes) and estrogen/progesterone (produced by female ovaries)
Results in reduced sexual interest and reproductive capacity
If it occurs prior to puberty, the gonads (male testes and female ovaries) fail to develop
Inflammation of the pancreas
It often results in a deficient production of insulin, which leads to hyperglycemia
An acute reaction to infection or trauma and can become life threatening.
An abnormally high production of pituitary growth hormone before adolescence results in this disease.
If it occurs after adolescence it results in acromegaly.
The pituitary growth hormone is deficient at birth, resulting in short stature.
Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
Usually caused by a local infection
A procedure involving the surgical excision, or removal, of one or both of the adrenal glands.
Fasting Blood Sugar
Blood sugar are measured after a 12-hour fast
Postprandial Blood Sugar
Blood sugar levels are measured about 2 hours after a meal
Glucose Tolerance Test
A test that may be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus examines a patient's toleracne of glucose.
The patietn is given glucose either orally or intravenously, then at timed intervals blood samples are taken and glucose levels measured and recorded
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
A common therapy to counteract hyposecretion
May also be sued following surgical removal of an endocrine gland to restore homeostasis.
It is an optional therapy for the treatment of symptoms associated with menopausal changes, although evidence suggests a slight risk of cardiac problems and cancer with its use.
The surgical removal, or excision, of a parathyroid gland may be a treatment for parathryoid cancer or for hyperparathroidism.
Used in the diagnostic procedure known as radioactive iodine uptake.
Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAIU)
Radioactive iodine is used to track and measure its entry into thyroid gland cells with a scanning instrument.
A reduction of iodine uptake is an indication of deficient thyroid function
The radioactive iodine targets cells within the thyroid gland and destroys them.
An effective treatment against a thyroid tumor (thyroidoma)
A procedure measuring thyroid function, during which an image of the thyroid gland is obtained.
Usually employed to detect a thyroid tumor
The surgical removal of the thyroid gland
A procedure in which the thyroid gland is surgically entered
The parathyroid glands must be surgically removed with the thyroid gland
A diagnostic test measuring thyroxine levels in the blood.
Often used as a diagnostic test for hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism