Medical Term

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nbennett
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Medical Term
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Chapter 13 and 14
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  1. Blephar/o
    Eyelid
  2. Cephal/o
    Head
  3. Cerebell/o
    Little brain
  4. Cerebr/o, Encephal/o
    Brain
  5. Conjunctiv/o
    Conjunctiva
  6. Crani/o
    Skull, cranium
  7. Dacry/o
    Tear
  8. Gangli/o
    Swelling, knot
  9. Ir/o
    Iris
  10. Mast/o
    Breast; mastoid
  11. Mening/i, Mening/o
    Membrane
  12. Myel/o
    Spinal Cord
  13. Neur/o
    Nerve
  14. Ocul/o, Opt/o, Ophthalm/o
    Eye
  15. Ot/o
    Ear
  16. Phren/o, Psych/o
    Mind
  17. Radic/o, Radicul/o
    Nerve Root
  18. Retin/o
    Retina
  19. Rhin/o
    Nose
  20. Scler/o
    Thick or hard; sclera
  21. Vag/o
    Vagus nerve
  22. Ventricul/o
    Ventricle
  23. Prefix: A-
    Without or absence of
  24. Prefix: Hyper-
    Excessive, abnormally high, or above
  25. Hypo-
    Deficient, abnormally low, or below
  26. Par-, Para-
    Alongside or abnormal
  27. Poly-
    Excessive, over, or many
  28. Esthesi/o
    Sensation
  29. Phasi/o
    To speak
  30. -algesia
    Pain
  31. -algia
    Condition of pain
  32. -asthenia
    Weakness
  33. -ia, -a
    Condition of
  34. Ather/o
    Fatty substance or plaque
  35. Aut/o
    Self
  36. Embol/o
    A plug
  37. Gli/o
    Glue
  38. Gnos/o
    Knowledge
  39. Hydr/o
    Water
  40. Later/o
    Side
  41. Mening/i; Mening/o
    Membrane
  42. Poli/o
    Gray
  43. Thromb/o
    Clot
  44. Ventricul/o
    Ventricle
  45. -al, -ar, -ic, -ion, -uss
    Pertaining to
  46. -cele
    Hernia, swelling, or protrusion
  47. -ism, -osis
    Condition of
  48. -itis
    Inflammation
  49. -lepsy
    Seizure
  50. -malacia
    Softening
  51. -oma
    Tumor
  52. -pathy
    Disease
  53. -plegia
    Paralysis
  54. -rrhage
    Profuse bleeding or hemorrhage
  55. -troph
    Development
  56. Angi/o
    Vessel
  57. Dur/o
    Hard
  58. Ech/o
    To bounce
  59. Electr/o
    Electricity
  60. Tom/o
    To cut
  61. -ectomy
    Surgical excision or removal
  62. -gram
    A record or image
  63. -graphy
    Recording process
  64. -iatry
    Treatment or specialty
  65. -ist
    One who specializes
  66. -logy
    Study of
  67. -lysis
    Lossen or dissolve
  68. -plasty
    Surgical repair
  69. -rrhaphy
    Suturing
  70. -tome
    Cutting instrument
  71. -tomy
    Incision or to cut
  72. Bi-
    Two
  73. Dys-
    Bad, abnormal, painful, or difficult
  74. Schiz/o
    To divide or split
  75. Somat/o
    Body
  76. -lexia
    Pertaining to a word or phrase
  77. -mania
    Madness or frenzy
  78. -phobia
    Fear
  79. -sis
    State of
  80. Dipl-
    Double
  81. Cyst/o
    Bladder or sac
  82. Kerat/o
    Hard, cornea
  83. Lith/o
    Stone
  84. Presby/o
    Old age
  85. Sinus/o
    Sinus cavity
  86. Stigmat/o
    Point
  87. -opia
    Condition of vision
  88. -ptosis
    Drooping
  89. Intra-
    Within
  90. Rad/i
    Spoke of a wheel
  91. -metrist
    One who measures
  92. Extern/o
    Exterior
  93. Med/o
    Middle
  94. -oid
    Resembling
  95. -scopy
    Process of viewing
  96. AD
    Alzheimer Disease
  97. ADHD
    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder
  98. ADD
    Attention Deficit Disorder
  99. ALS
    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
  100. Ast
    Astigmatism
  101. CT (CAT) Scan
    Computed (Axial) Tomography scan
  102. CP
    Cerebral Palsy
  103. CVA
    Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
  104. DTR
    Deep Tendon Reflexes
  105. EchoEG
    Echoencephalography
  106. EEG
    Electroencephalogram
  107. Em
    Emmetropia
  108. EP
    Evoked Potential
  109. IOL
    Intraocular Lens
  110. LASIK
    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis
  111. MRI
    Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  112. MS
    Multiple Slcerosis
  113. OM
    Otitis Media
  114. PD
    Parkinson Disease
  115. PET
    Positron Emission Tomography
  116. PTSD
    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
  117. Aphasia
    The inability to speak
  118. Cephalalgia
    Headache
  119. Convulsion
    A series of involuntary muscular spasms cused by an uncoordinated excitation of motor neurons that triggers muscle contraction
  120. Hyperalgesia
    An excessive sensitivity to painful stimuli
  121. Hypoalgesia
    A deficient sensitivity to normally painful stimuli
  122. Hyperesthesia
    An excessive sensitivity to a stimulus
  123. Neuralgia
    A condition of pain in the nerve
  124. Neurasthenia (Chronic Fatigue, Fibromyalgia, Dysphoria)
    Generalized experience of body fatigue, which is often associated with mental depression
  125. Parethesia
    An abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling.
  126. Polyneuralgia
    Condition of pain in many nerves
  127. Neuralgia
    Condition of pain in a nerve
  128. Syncope
    A temporary loss of consciousness due to a sudden reduction of blood flow to the brain.
  129. Agnosia
    • The loss of the ability to interpret sensory information.
    • "A condition without knowledge"
  130. Alzheimer Disease
    Among some individuals over the age of 40, the brain undergoes gradual deterioration resulting in confusion, short-term memory loss, and restlessness.
  131. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Lou Gehrig Disease)
    A disease characterized by the progressive atrophy (loss) of muscle casued by hardening of nervous tissue on the lateral columns of the spinal cord.
  132. Autism
    • "Disease of Self"
    • A developmental disorder that varies in its severity with the patient, characterized by withdrawal from outward reality and impaired development in social conduct and communication.
  133. Bell Palsy
    The patient suffers from paralysis of the face muscles on one side (called unilateral) due to damage to the seventh cranial nerve.
  134. Cerebellitis
    • An inflammation of the cerebellum.
    • Symptoms of this disease include a loss of muscle coordination and equilibrium.
  135. Cerebral Aneurysm
    Affects arterties channeling blood to the brain, placing the brain at great risk of the damage that would result from a blow aneurysm.
  136. Aneurysm
    A circulatory problem caused by the weakened wall of a blood vessel.
  137. Cerbral Atherosclerosis
    The vessels gradually close due to the accumulation of fatty plaques, reducing the flow of blood to the brain.
  138. Cerebral Embolism
    A moving blood clot in an artery of the brain
  139. Cerebral Thrombosis
    The condition of a stationary blood clot in an artery of the brain.
  140. Cerebral Hemorrhage
    The condition of bleeding from blood vessels associated with the cerebrum.
  141. Cerebral Palsy
    A condition that appears at birth or shortly afterward as a partial muscle paralysis.
  142. Cerebrovascular Accident
    Occurs when the blood supply to the brain is cut off, resulting in the irreversible death of brain cells followed by losses of mental function or death.
  143. Coma
    A general term describing several levels of abnormally decreased consciousness.
  144. Concussion
    An injury to soft tissue resulting from a blow or violent shaking.
  145. Cerebral Concussion
    The cerebrum undergoes physical damage that often results in hemorrhage (bleeding) and the subsequent loss of brain cells and mental function.
  146. Encephalitis
    Inflammation of the brain.
  147. Encephalomalacia
    The softening of brain tissue
  148. Epilepsy
    • A brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, including convulsions and temporary loss of consciousness.
    • "To be seized upon"
  149. Glioma
    A neoplasm (tumor) of glial cells.
  150. Hydrocephalus
    • "Head water"
    • A congenital disease caused by an abnormally increased volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain ventricles of a child before the cranial sutures have sealed, resulting in enlargement of the cranium, and in many cases, brain damage.
  151. Meningioma
    A benign tumor of the meninges usually arising from the arachnoid mater and occurring within the superior sagittal sinus on top of the brain.
  152. Meningitis
    An inflammation of the meninges. It is usually caused by a bacterial or viral infection.
  153. Meningocele
    A protrusion of the meninges, usually caused by a defect in the skull or spinal column.
  154. Meningomyelocele
    A term associated with a protrusion of the meninges and spinal cord through a defective opening in the spinal colum.
  155. Multiple Slcerosis
    A disease characterized by the deterioration of the myelin sheath covering axons within the brain.
  156. Myelitis
    Inflammation of the spinal cord
  157. Narcolepsy
    • A sleep disorder characterized by sudden uncontrollable espisodes of sleep, attacks of paralysis, ans hypangogic hallucinations (dreams intruding into the wakeful state).
    • "Numb seizure"
  158. Neuritis
    Inflammation of a nerve
  159. Polyneuritis
    Inflammation of many nerves
  160. Neuroma
    A tumor originating from nerve cells
  161. Neuropathy
    A disease affecting any part of the nervous system
  162. Polyneuropathy
    When many nerves are affected
  163. Paraplegia
    Muslces of the legs and lower body are paralyzed
  164. Monoplegia
    One limb is paralyzed
  165. Hemiplegia
    Paralysis on one side of the body
  166. Quadriplegia
    Paralysis form the neck down including all four limbs.
  167. Parkinson Disease
    A chronic degenerative disease of the brain characterized by tremors, rigidity, and shuffling gait.
  168. Poliomyelitis
    • Characterized by inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord, often resulting in paralysis.
    • Commonly referred to as polio.
  169. Rabies
    An acute, often fatal, infection of the central nervous system that is caused by a virus transmitted to human by the bite of an infected animal.
  170. Ventriculitis
    The condition of the inflammation of the ventricles of the brain.
  171. Analgesic
    Aspirin, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen
  172. Anestheisa
    The primary type of pain managment that is used during surigcal procedures.
  173. Anesthesiologist
    Physician who manages anesthesia
  174. Anesthetist
    Trained specialist who administers anethesia
  175. Nerve Block Anesthesia
    An injection made into a nerve to block the conduction of impulese between the nerve and the CNS.
  176. Cerebral Angiography
    • A diagnostic procedure that reveals blood flow to the brain by X-ray photography
    • Capable of identifying cerebral aneurysm and cerebral thrombosis and tracking the damge that might occur following a cerebral hemorrhage.
  177. Computed Tomography
    A procedure involving the use of a computer to interpret a series of images and construct from them a three-dimensional view of the brain.
  178. Craniectomy
    The surgical removal of part of the cranium
  179. Craniotomy
    An incision is made through the cranium to provide surgical access to the brain.
  180. Craniotome
    The surgical knife used to perform a craniotomy
  181. Echoencephalography
    Ultrasound (sound wave) technology is used to record brain structures in the search for abnormalities.
  182. Effectual Drug Therapy
    A general type of treatment to manage neurological disorders.
  183. Antianxiety
    Medication that reduces patient anxiety levels
  184. Anticonvulsants
    Control convulsions occurring in diseases such as epilepsy.
  185. Antipyretics
    Effective against fever
  186. Antidepressants
    Combant depressoin
  187. Antipsychotics
    Reduce hallucinations and confusion
  188. Tranquilizers and Sedatives
    Used to calm agitated and anxious patients
  189. Narcotics
    Produce stupor or induce sleep
  190. Electroencephalography
    A diagnostic procedure that records electrical impluses of the brain to measure brain activity
  191. Epidural
    The injuction of a spinal block anesthetic into the epidural space external to the spinal cord.
  192. Evoked Potential Studies
    A group of diagnostic tests that measure change in brain waves during particular stimuli to determine brain function.
  193. Ganglionectomy
    Surgical removal of a ganglion
  194. Lumbar Puncture
    The withdrawal (aspiration) of CSF from the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the spinal cord.
  195. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    Powerful magnets are used to observe soft tissues in the body including the brain. It is used to target brain tumors, brain trauma, MS, and other conditions.
  196. Myelogram
    It is an X-ray photograph of the spinal cord following injection of a contrast dye.
  197. Myelography
    The procedure of a myelogram
  198. Neurectomy
    The surgical removal of a nerve
  199. Neurology
    • The study and medical practice of the nervous system
    • It is also the department of a hospital or clinic where medical procedures on the brain, spinal cord, and nerves are performed.
  200. Neurologic
    An adjective associated with the general field of neurology
  201. Neuroscientist
    One who participates in neurological research
  202. Neurologist
    A physician who specializes in neurology
  203. Neurosurgeon
    A surgical physician in neurology
  204. Neurolysis
    The procedure of separating a nerve by removing unwanted adhesions
  205. Neuroplasty
    The surgical repair of a nerve
  206. Neurorrhaphy
    Suture of a nerve
  207. Neurotomy
    Incision into a nerve
  208. Positron Emission Tomography
    • A scan using an injected radioactive chemical to provide a map of blood flow within the body that can be correlated to function.
    • Useful diagnostic procedure evaluating brain function
  209. Psychiatry
    The branch of medicin that addreses disorders of the brain resulting in mental and emotional disturbances.
  210. Psychiatrist
    A physician practicing in the field of pscyhiatry
  211. Psychopharmacology
    A drug therapy targeting the brain
  212. Pscyhoanalysis
    Psychiatric therapy, to improve a patient's quality of life.
  213. Psychology
    • The study of human behavior
    • "study of the mind"
  214. Clinical Psychology
    Uses applied psychology to treat patients suffering from behavioral disordes and emotional trauma.
  215. Psychotherapy
    The technique used in treating behavioral and emotional issues
  216. Radicotomy; Rhizotomy
    A surgical incision into a nerve root.
  217. Reflex Testing
    • A series of diagnostic tests performed to observe the body's response to touch stimuli.
    • Useful in assessing stroke, head trauma, brith defects, and other neurological challenges.
    • The tests include deep tendon reflexes (DTR) involving percussion at the patellar tendon and elsewhere and Babinski reflex involving stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot.
  218. Vagotomy
    A procedure where several branches of the vagus nerve are severed to reduce acid secretion into the stomach in an effort to prevent the reoccurrence of peptic ulcer.
  219. Anxiety Disorder
    Occurs when this mental state dominates behavior. Usually an acute response that includes restlessness, psychological tension, tachycardia, and shortness of breath.
  220. Attention Deficit Disorder
    • A neurological disorder characterized by short attention span and poor concentration.
    • Usually associated with school-age children but can also affect adults and makes learning very difficult.
  221. Bipolar Disease
    • "pertaining to two poles"
    • Affects the cognitive functions of the cerebrum, causing alternating periods of high energy and mental confusion (mania) with low energy and mental depression.
  222. Dementia
    • An impairment of mental function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion.
    • Often associated with Alzheimer disease.
  223. Dyslexia
    • "Condition of difficult reading"
    • Some individuals have a reading handicap that has neurological cause, in which some letters and numbers are reversed in order by the brain.
  224. Mania
    An emotional disorder of abnormally high psychomotor activity, which includes excitement, a rapid movement of ideas, unstable attention, sleeplessness, and confusion between reality and imagination.
  225. Megalomania
    An individual believes oneself to be a person of great fame or wealth.
  226. Pyromania
    Which is an obsessive fascination with fire
  227. Neurosis
    An emotional disorder involving a counterproductive way of dealing with mental stress.
  228. Paranoia
    • A person experiencing persistent delusions of persecution resulting in mistrust and combativeness.
    • "Derangement, madness"
  229. Phobia
    • An irrational, obsessive fear.
    • Often used as a suffix when describing a particular fear.
  230. Arachnophobia
    Fear of spiders
  231. Agoraphobia
    Abnormal fear of public places
  232. Acrophobia
    Abnormal fear of heights
  233. Phobophobia
    The fear of developing a phobia.
  234. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder
    Many individuals who have experienced a severe mental strain or emotional trauma, such a military combat or a physical assault, suffer from an acute condition that includes sleeplessness, anxiety, and paranoia.
  235. Psychopathy
    • A general term for a mental or emotional disorder.
    • Disease of the mind.
  236. Psychosis
    • A individual suffering from a gross distortion or disorganization of their mental capacity, emotional response, and capacity to recognize reality and relate to others may be diagnosed with this disease.
    • "condition of the mind"
  237. Psychosomatic
    • "Pertaining to mind and body"
    • It refers to the influence of the mind over bodily functions, especially disease.
    • Among some people, their mind creates symptoms that suggest an illness when physical signs are absent.
  238. Schizophrenia
    • Most common form of psychosis
    • "Condition of split mind"
    • Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, and extensive withdrawal from other people and the outside world.
  239. Blepharoptosis
    Drooping eyelid
  240. Blepharitis
    A common symptom of an inflammation of the eyelid.
  241. Blepharoplasty
    A procedure to repair the eyelid when inflammation damages the eyelid
  242. Cataract
    • Transparency of the lens is reduced
    • Usually a normal part of the aging process
  243. Conjunctivitis
    • When bacteria infect the conjunctiva membrane, causing inflammation.
    • Commonly known as "pink eye"
  244. Dacryolithiasis
    The presence of rocky particles in the apparatus.
  245. Dacryocystitis
    Inflammation of the lacrimal apparatus
  246. Dacryosinusitis
    Inflammation in the adjacent sinuses
  247. Detached Retina
    • Common cause of blindness
    • Occurs when the retina tears away from the choroid layer of the eye.
    • Can caused by a severe blow to the head, high blood pressure, or old age.
  248. Diplopia
    • Condition of double vision
    • May result from weakened extrinsic eye muscles, defects in the lens, or a condition of the brain.
  249. Glaucoma
    • Disease of the eye.
    • A loss of vision occurs when the fluid pressure within the anterior chamber of the eyeball (called intraocular pressure) rises above normal.
    • Rise of fluid pressure in this disease is caused by a blockage in a small opening that normally drains the fluid.
  250. Hordeolum
    An infection of the meibomian gland produces a local swelling of the eyelid.
  251. Chalazion
    A chronic form of hordeolum
  252. Iritis
    Bacterial infection of the iris
  253. Keratitis
    When the cornea becomes inflamed
  254. Macular Degeneration
    • Progressive deterioration of the macula lutea leads to a loss of visual focus
    • Most common cause is age
  255. Opthalmomalacia
    Softening of the eye
  256. Opthalmoplegia
    • Paralysis of the eye
    • In this eye disease, the extrinsic eye muscles are unable to move the eyeball.
  257. Ophthalmorrhagia
    Loss of blodd by hemorrhage of the eye
  258. Ophthalmopathy
    eye conditions
  259. Retinopathy
    A general term for a disease of the retina
  260. Vision Disorders
    Conditions of the eye that result in a reduction of vision
  261. Myopia
    Nearsightedness
  262. Hyperopia
    Farsightedness
  263. Presbyopia
    Reduction in vision due to age
  264. Emmetropia (Em)
    The normal condition of the eye
  265. Astigmatism (Ast)
    The curvature of the eye is defective to produce blurred vision
  266. Cataract Extraction
    A lens damaged by a cataract is surgically removed and replace with a donor lens
  267. Corneal Grafting
    A procedure where the injured cornea is removed and replaced by implantation of a donor cornea.
  268. Dacryocystorhinostomy
    A procedure wher a channel is surgically created between the nasal cavity and lacrimal sac to promote drainage.
  269. LASIK
    • Laser-Assisted in situ keratomileusis
    • It is the use of a laser to reshape the corneal tissue beneath the surface of the cornea to correct vision disorders, such as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism.
  270. Optometrist
    A health professional (not a physician) trained to examine eyes to correct vision problems and eye disorders.
  271. Ophthalmologist
    A physician who specializes in the study and treatment of diseases associated with the eyes.
  272. Mastoiditis
    Inflammation of the mastoid (an area of the temporal bone of the skull housing the middle and internal ear)
  273. Meniere Disease
    A chronic disease of the inner ear, includes symptoms of dizziness and tinnitus
  274. Tinnitus
    Ringing in the ears
  275. Otitis
    General term for inflammation of the ear
  276. Otitis Externa
    One form of otitis in which the external auditory canal is involved causing sensations of pain.
  277. Otitis Media (OM)
    • One form of otitis where the middle ear is involved to cause pain and a temporary loss of hearing.
    • Relatively common among children, is caused by bacterial infection, and often requires antibiotic therapy.
  278. Otopathies
    Diseases of the ear
  279. Otorrhea
    Pus containing discharge appears in the external auditory canal
  280. Otalgia
    Condition of pain in the ear
  281. Otosclerosis
    An abnormal formation of bone within the ear, usually between the stapes and the oval window of the middle ear
  282. Otoscopy
    A visual examination of the ear using a handheld instrument
  283. Vertigo
    • The sensation of whirling motion
    • If it is chronic, it may be an indication of an inner ear infection or dysfunction within the brain.
  284. Aden/o
    gland
  285. Adren/o
    Adrenal gland
  286. Crin/o
    To secrete
  287. Gonad/o
    Sex gland
  288. Hormon/o
    To set in motion
  289. Pancreat/o
    Sweetbread, pancreas
  290. Ren/o
    Kidney
  291. Thyr/o; Thyroid/o
    Shield, thyroid
  292. Endo-
    Within
  293. Hyper-
    Excessive, abnormally high, or above
  294. Hypo-
    Deficient, abnormally low, or below
  295. Para-
    Alongside or abnormal
  296. Calc/i, Calc/o
    Calcium
  297. Glyc/o
    Sweet or sugar
  298. Muc/o
    Mucus
  299. -al
    Pertaining to
  300. -emia
    Condition of blood
  301. -ism
    Condition of
  302. -itis
    Inflammation
  303. -oma
    Tumor
  304. -pathy
    Disease
  305. -ectomy
    Surgical excision or removal
  306. -tomy
    Incision or to cut
  307. ADH
    Antidiuretic Hormone
  308. DI
    Diabetes Insipidus
  309. DM
    Diabetes Mellitus
  310. FBS
    Fasting blood sugar
  311. FSH
    Follicle-Stimulating hormone
  312. GH
    Growth hormone
  313. GTT
    Glucose tolerance test
  314. HRT
    Hormone replacement therapy
  315. LH
    Luteinizing hormone
  316. PH
    Parathyroid hormone
  317. PPBS
    Postprandial blood sugar
  318. RAIU
    Radioactive iodine uptake
  319. Hypersecretion
    Abnormally high hormone production
  320. Hyposecretion
    Abnormally low hormone production
  321. Endocrinology
    • The study of secreting within
    • The field of medicine focusing on the study and treatment of endocrine disorders
  322. Endocrinologist
    A physician who practices the "study of secreting within", or endocrinology
  323. Endocrinopathy
    A general term for a disease of the endocrine system.
  324. Acidosis
    • The condition of acid in the body.
    • Occurs when carbon dioxide accumulates in tissues to form carbonic acid.
    • A symptom of diabetes mellitus and may also be caused by respiratory or kidney disorders.
  325. Acromegaly
    • A sign that includes enlargement of bone structure
    • "Abnormally large extremity"
  326. Exophthalmos
    • The abnormal protrusion of the eyes
    • Classic symptom of excessive activity of the thyroid gland and literally means "outside eyes."
  327. Goiter
    • An abnormal enlargement of the thyroid gland caused by a tumor; lack of iodine in the diet, or an infection
    • A common symptom of thyroid gland disease is a swelling on the anterior side of the neck in the location of the thyroid gland.
  328. Hirsutism
    • A symptom of excessive body hair in a masculine pattern.
    • "Hairy"
  329. Adrenal Virilism
    Excessive production of androgens in women may also lead to muscle and bone growth. This is te resulting pattern of masculinization
  330. Ketosis (Ketoacidosis)
    An excessive amount of ketone bodies in the blood and urine and is a symptom of diabetes mellitus and starvation.
  331. Polydipsia
    • Condition of many thirsts
    • An abnormal state of excessive thirst occurs during certain disorders of the pituitary gland or the pancreas.
  332. Polyuria
    • The production of abnormally large volumes of urine.
    • Symptom of diabetes mellitus
  333. Adenitis
    The general term for an inflammation of a gland
  334. Adenosis
    Any disease of a gland
  335. Adenocarcinoma
    • A malignant tumor that arises from epithelial tissue to form a glandular or glandlike pattern of cells.
    • Life-threatening form of cancer
    • Often develops from a benign tumor of glandular cells
  336. Adenoma
    • A benign tumor of glandular cells.
    • May cause excess secretion by the affected gland
  337. Adrenalitis
    • Inflammtion of the adrenal gland
    • It may result from tumor development or infection and is often revealed in women by the symptoms of adrenal virilism
  338. Adrenomegaly
    Disease in which one or both of the adrenal glands becomes enlarged
  339. Cretinism
    • A child suffering from the thyroid gland's inability to produce normal levels of growth hormone at birth may develop this condition.
    • A reduced mental development and physical growth occur in this condition
  340. Cushing Syndrome
    • A syndrome that is caused by excessive secretion of the hormone cortisole by the adrenal cortex, which affects many organs.
    • It is characterized by obesity, moon (round) face, hyperglycemia, and muscle weakness.
    • Common cause is a tumor of the pituitary gland
  341. Syndrome
    A disease with an array of symptoms and involving multiple organs
  342. Diabetes Insipidus
    • Caused by a hyposecretion of ADH by the pituitary gland.
    • Characterized by the symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria.
  343. Diabetes Mellitus
    • Chronic Disorder of carbohydrate metablosim
    • Result of resistance of body cells to insulin, or a deficiency or complete lack of insulin production by cells of the pancreas.
    • Two types: Type 1 and Type 2
  344. Type 1 DM
    • Less common
    • Usually requires hormone replacement therapy with insulin and appears during childhood or adolescence.
  345. Type 2 DM
    • Usually appears during adulthood and is often associated with obesity
    • Can usually be managed with dietary restrictions and regular exercise, and it can be controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs.
  346. Common Symptoms of DM
    • Polydipsia
    • Polyuria
    • Glycosuria
  347. Diabetic Nephropathy
    DM causes large fluctuations in blood sugar levels, if untreated it can lead to circulatory deficiencies that result in kidney damage
  348. Diabetic Neuropathy
    Peripheral nerve damage
  349. Diabetic Retinopathy
    A form of potentially sight-threatening damge to the eye
  350. Endocrinopathy
    • The general term for a disease of the endocrine system.
    • Often the result of either an excessive production of one or more hormones by an endocrine gland or deficient production of one or more hormones
  351. Hyperadrenalism
    • Excessive activity of one or more adrenal glands
    • Can lead to Cushing syndrome
  352. Hypoadrenalism
    • Abnormally reduced activity of the adrenal gland
    • May lead to Addison Disease if left untreated
  353. Hypercalcemia
    • When calcium levels in the blood become abnormally high
    • The disease ia result of the abnormal release of calcium from bones, which leads to softening of the bones if left untreated.
    • It is caused by excessive activity of the parthyroid glands.
  354. Hypocalcemia (Calcipenia)
    • The condition of abnormally low levels of calcium in the blood
    • It is caused by the abnormally low activity of the parathyroid glands to produce insufficient parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  355. Hyperglycemia
    • "Condition of blood excessive sugar"
    • The chronic from of the disease often indicates the body may not be producing enough insulin or insulin receptor sites are resistant and may lead to Type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  356. Hypoglycemia
    • Blood sugar levels fall to abnormally low levels.
    • It is caused by excessive insulin administration or excessive production by the pancreas and is often accompanied by headache, malaise (weakness), tremors, hunger, and anxiety.
    • If left untreated, it can lead to coma and death
  357. Hyperparathyroidism
    • The excessive production of PTH by the parathyroid glands
    • Usually caused by a tumor, it results in excessive calcium levels in the blood (hypercalcemia)
  358. Hypoparathyroidism
    PTH levels are reduced and the condition of hypocalcemia occurs
  359. Hyperthyroidism
    • Excessive activity of the thyroid gland produces abnormally high levels of thyroid hormone.
    • Symptoms include exophthalmos, goiter, rapid heart rate, and weight loss.
  360. Graves Disease
    • One form of chronic hyperthyroidism
    • Believed to be an autoimmune disease
  361. Thyrotoxicosis
    • One form of chronic hyperthyroidism
    • An acute event that is triggered by infection or trauma and can become life threatening
  362. Hypothyroidism
    • A disease in which thyroid gland activity becomes deficient, thyroid hormone blood levels drop below normal
    • Symptoms include slow heart rate, dry skin, low energy, and weight gain.
  363. Myxedema
    • Chronic form of hypothyroidism
    • The subcutaneous layer beneath the skin becomes thick and hard and the body retains water, aging the skin prematurely while puffing the face and thickening the tongue and hands
    • Literally means "swollen mucus"
  364. Hypogonadism
    • Disease in which abnormally low amounts of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) are produced by the pituitary gland, which reduces the production of the sex hormones testosterone (produced by male testes) and estrogen/progesterone (produced by female ovaries)
    • Results in reduced sexual interest and reproductive capacity
    • If it occurs prior to puberty, the gonads (male testes and female ovaries) fail to develop
  365. Pancreatitis
    • Inflammation of the pancreas
    • It often results in a deficient production of insulin, which leads to hyperglycemia
    • An acute reaction to infection or trauma and can become life threatening.
  366. Pituitary Gigantism
    • An abnormally high production of pituitary growth hormone before adolescence results in this disease.
    • If it occurs after adolescence it results in acromegaly.
  367. Pituitary Dwarfism
    The pituitary growth hormone is deficient at birth, resulting in short stature.
  368. Thyroiditis
    Inflammation of the thyroid gland.
  369. Acute Thyroiditis
    Usually caused by a local infection
  370. Adrenalectomy
    A procedure involving the surgical excision, or removal, of one or both of the adrenal glands.
  371. Fasting Blood Sugar
    Blood sugar are measured after a 12-hour fast
  372. Postprandial Blood Sugar
    Blood sugar levels are measured about 2 hours after a meal
  373. Glucose Tolerance Test
    • A test that may be used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus examines a patient's toleracne of glucose.
    • The patietn is given glucose either orally or intravenously, then at timed intervals blood samples are taken and glucose levels measured and recorded
  374. Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT)
    • A common therapy to counteract hyposecretion
    • May also be sued following surgical removal of an endocrine gland to restore homeostasis.
    • It is an optional therapy for the treatment of symptoms associated with menopausal changes, although evidence suggests a slight risk of cardiac problems and cancer with its use.
  375. Parathyroidectomy
    • Procedure
    • The surgical removal, or excision, of a parathyroid gland may be a treatment for parathryoid cancer or for hyperparathroidism.
  376. Parathyroidoma
    Parathyroid cancer
  377. Radioactive Iodine
    Used in the diagnostic procedure known as radioactive iodine uptake.
  378. Radioactive Iodine Uptake (RAIU)
    • Radioactive iodine is used to track and measure its entry into thyroid gland cells with a scanning instrument.
    • A reduction of iodine uptake is an indication of deficient thyroid function
  379. Radioiodine Therapy
    • The radioactive iodine targets cells within the thyroid gland and destroys them.
    • An effective treatment against a thyroid tumor (thyroidoma)
  380. Thyroid Scan
    • A procedure measuring thyroid function, during which an image of the thyroid gland is obtained.
    • Usually employed to detect a thyroid tumor
  381. Thyroidectomy
    The surgical removal of the thyroid gland
  382. Thyroidotomy
    A procedure in which the thyroid gland is surgically entered
  383. Thyroparathyroidectomy
    The parathyroid glands must be surgically removed with the thyroid gland
  384. Thyroxine Test
    • A diagnostic test measuring thyroxine levels in the blood.
    • Often used as a diagnostic test for hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism

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