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What is Staphylococcus' structure?
What is the most common staph and what is it resistant to?
- Staphyolococcus aureus
- Methicillin resistant (MRSA)
What are the 6 enzymes of S. aureus?
- coagulase (only one that does)
- hyaluronidase- breaks down connective tissue
- staphlokinase- breaks down blood clots
- nuclease- kills DNA
- lipase- breaks down fats
- penicillinase- breaks down penicillin
What are the toxins of S. aureus?
- Hemolysins- breaks down red blood cells
- leukocidin- breaks down with blood cells
- enterotoxins- breaks down GI lining
- exfoliative toxin- breaks down skin
- Toxic shock syndrome toxin
Where are the following cutaneous infections found? folliculitis, hidradenitis, furuncle, carbuncle, impetigo
- folliculitis- hair follicle
- hidradenitis- sweat glands
- furuncle- gets into dermis of the skin
- carbuncle- group of furuncles
- impetigo - around the mouth
Where are the following system infections found?
Osteomyelitis, secondary osteomyelitis, Pneumonia
- primary- bones (originates in blood)
- secondary- break in skin, burrows to the bone (common in diabetics)
- Lung abscesses- high mortality (caused by inhalation)
Location and effect of Staphylococcus epidermis?
- Normal bacteria on skin
- If infected UTI from catheter
Where are S. hominis located?
Sweat glands (stinky) arm pits and groin
Where is S. capitis?
What does S. saprophyticus cause?
UTI in sexually active adolescent females
What are the defenses against staph?
- Unbroken skin
- White blood cells
How do you clinically detect Staph?
- Gram postive cocci clumps
- Catalase positive (when you pour H2O2 on it, it fizzes)
- Grows anaerobically
- Coagulase test (S. aureus +) (all others -)
How do you treat staphylococcus infections?
- clean abscesses out
- systematic conditions- IV antibiotic
- No vaccines
What are the general characteristics of Streptococcus?
- Round colonies
- Non-spore forming
- Faculative anaerobes
- Catalase negative
How are strep classified?
- Cell wall antigens
- Strep A through N
- Hemolysis of RBC
What are the 2 ways Strep hemolysis red blood cells?
- Alpha- partially ( leaves a green residue)
- Beta- completely (leaves a clear residue)
What is the difference between toxins and enzymes?
All enzymes are proteins, but not all toxins are proteins
What are the major extracellular toxins of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)?
- Streptolysin O (SLO)- attacks deep tissue
- Streptolysin S (SLS)- attacks surface tissue (tonsils)
- Erthogenix toxin- bright red rash on skin (scarlet fever)``
What does an ASLO test do?
Test to see if you have had strep in the past ~year
What are the major extracellular enzymes of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A)?
- Streptokinase- breaks down clots
- Hyaluronidase- breaks down connective tissue
- Streptodornase-breaks down DNA
How is S. pyogenes (group A) transmitted?
- Droplets (mucus an saliva)
- airborn (very rare)
What are the 2 types of skin infections caused by S. pyogenes (group A)?
- Pyoderma- superficial
- erysipelas- gets to the dermis
What is Streptococcal pharyngitis?
What is rheumatic fever?
Strep attacks joints, heart valves and kidneys
What is acute glomerulonephritis (AGN)?
Strep attacks the kidneys
Where is Streptococcus agalactiae (group B) located?
- Normal flora of the vagina
- Can infect infants (cause endocarditis)
What is group D and where is it located?
How much of poo is made from bacteria?
What can group A and G cause?
Rare but Upper respiratory infection
Where are Viridans found?
- Normal flora of the mouth
- May infect during bloody dental procedures
How do we identify, treat and prevent Strep?
- Blood sheep agar
- developing nasal spray for group A
What are the characteristics of Streptococcus pneumonia?
- Viridan group A
- Lancet shaped cells
- Smooth colonies (alpha hemolysis)
- Falcultative anerobe (too much O2 will kill it)
What does lobar pneumonia do?
Walls off in lungs
How is S. pneumonia cultivated? Specimen and result
- Gram-stains purple round chains or diplococci
How do you treat and prevent S. pneumococcus?
- pneumonia vaccine
How does Gonococcus infect?
Pili attach to the epithelium of the urethra
What are the symptoms of genital gonorrhea in males?
Yellow discharge and painful urination
What are the symptoms of Genitourinary Gonorrhea in females?
- 1/2 the time bloody discharge
- other 1/2 no symptoms (dangerous because if left untreated can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease)
What are the 3 types of extragenital Gonococcal infections in adults?
Pharyngitus (mouth and throat) Conjunctivitis (eye) Protitis (butt)
Why do they put erythromycin in infants eyes?
To prevent conjunctivitis (from gonorrhea)
What are the symptoms and treatment of gonorrhea?
- symptoms and gram negative diplococci
What is the transmission of meningococcus?
- droplets usually through the nasopharynx
- have pili that get into the blood stream, which get to the miningies
What age is most susceptible for meningococcus?
6-36 months and 10-20 years
How do you diagnose meningococucus?
Lumbar puncture, blood culture or nasopharyx swab
What is the treatment and preventative therapy for meningococcus?
- Penicillin and steroids