Botany: CH8: the uptake and use of water, minerals and light

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  1. osmosis
    the diffusion of water across permeable cell membranes that select for or against certain substances
  2. turgid
    swollen and firm due to internal water pressure
  3. turgor pressure
    the pressure developed in a cell as it becomes filled with water
  4. plasmolysis
    shrinkage of cytoplasm away from the cell wall as a result of excess water loss
  5. root pressure
    the pressure developed by living cells in a root forcing water up the xylem
  6. guttation
    exudation of droplets of water, most often from leaf margins, as a result of water movement up a plant due to root pressure; from pores called hydathodes
  7. transpiration
    the loss of water vapor from a plant, mostly from the stomata of leaves
  8. transpirational pull
    the force exerted from transpiration from the leaves that draws water up through a plant
  9. cold hardening
    the process whereby some species prepare for seasonal periods of low temperatures
  10. macronutrients
    a mineral required by plants and animals in relatively large quantities
  11. micronutrients
    a mineral required by plants and animals in relatively small quantities; trace element
  12. chlorosis
    an abnormal yellowing of leaves due to a reduced chlorophyll content
  13. phospholipids
    fatty membrane components that contain phosphorus
  14. necrosis
    the death of a plant tissue
  15. N-P-K ratio
    the relative proportions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in a fertilizer
  16. humus
    organic matter in the soil derived from the decomposition of plant and animal remains
  17. sand
    an inorganic soil component, the particles of which range between 0.02 and 2 mm diameter
  18. clay
    an inorganic soil component having particles less than 0.002 mm diameter
  19. silt
    an inorganic soil component, the particles of which range between 0.002 and 0.02 mm diameter
  20. loam
    a mixture of sand silt and clay
  21. water-holding capacity (field capacity)
    the amount of water held in a soil after gravitational run-off
  22. pH
    a measure of relative acidity or alkalinity
  23. acid rain
    a mild sulfuric acid solution, the product of combining the air pollutant sulfur dioxide with atmospheric moisture
  24. chelates
    an organic substance to which metals such as iron are bound and from which they are released
  25. granum (pl. grana)
    a stack of platelike, pigment-containing structures in a chloroplast
  26. chlorophylls
    a green plant pigment located in chloroplasts
  27. xanthophyll
    a yellow or almost colorless photosynthetic pigment
  28. carotene
    an orange-yellow pigment located in the chloroplasts
  29. anthocyanin
    a water-soluble pigment, varying from red to blue
  30. variegation, variegated
    an inherited, irregular pattern of color in a leaf or petal
  31. cellular respiration
    the chemical breakdown of food substances, resulting in the liberation of energy
  32. light reaction
    the first stage of photosynthesis
  33. carbon dioxide fixation
    the second phase of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere unites with the sugar ribulose diphosphate
  34. starch
    the principle food-storage substance of higher plants; a carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units
  35. fermentation
    the partial breakdown of food molecules to yield ethyl alcohol, carbon dioxide, and energy; occurs in the absence of oxygen
  36. 9 macronutrients
    • C carbon
    • H hydrogen
    • O oxygen
    • N nitrogen
    • P phosphorus
    • K potassium
    • S sulfur
    • Ca calcium
    • Mg magnesium
  37. 6 micronutrients
    • Fe iron
    • Cu copper
    • Zn zinc
    • Mn manganese
    • Mo molybdenum
    • B boron

Card Set Information

Botany: CH8: the uptake and use of water, minerals and light
2011-05-29 21:53:39
Botany CH8 uptake use water minerals light

Botany: CH8: the uptake and use of water, minerals and light
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