Anatomy and Physiology
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Name the 8 functions of the kidneys
- 1. Regulation of blood ionic composition
- 2. Regulation of blood pH
- 3. Regulation of blood volume
- 4. Regulation of blood pressure
- 5. Regulation of blood osmolarity
- 6. Production of hormones
- 7. Regulation of blood glucose level
- 8. Excretion of wastes and foreign substances
What is the pathway of blood supply to the kidney?
- Renal artery
- Segmental arteries
- Interlobular arteries
- Afferent arterioles
- Glomerular capillaries
- Efferent arterioles
- Peritubular capillaries
- Interlobular veins
- Arcuate veins
- Interlobar veins
- Renal Vein
Nephrons consist of 2 parts what are they?
- 1. Renal corpuscle- where blood plasma is filtered
- 2. Renal tubule- into which the filtered fluid passes
What are the two components of a renal corpuscle?
- 1. glomerulus- the capillary network
- 2. glomerular capsule- double walled epithelial cup that surrounds the glomerular capillaries
What happens in the glomerular capsule?
Blood plasma is filtered here and then the filtered fluid passes into the renal tube.
What are the 3 main sections of the renal tube?
- 1. proximal convoluted tubule
- 2. loop of Henle
- 3. distal convoluted tubule
What is the difference between a corticle nephron and a juxtamedullary nephron?
- In the corticle nephron their renal corpuscles lie in the outer portion of the renal cortex and they have short loops of henle that lie mainly in the cortex and penetrate only into the outer region of the renal medulla. Short loops recieve thier blood supply from peritubular capillaries that arise from efferent arterioles.
- In the juxtamedullary nephron their renal corpus lie deep in the cortex close to the medulla, and they have a long loop of henle that extends into the deepest region of the medulla. Long loops receive their blood supply from peritubular capillaries and from the vasa recta that arise from efferent arterioles.
To produce urine nephrons and collecting ducts perform three basic processes what are they?
- 1. Glomerular filtration- filtration from blood plasma into nephron.
- 2. Tubular reabsorption- Tubular reabsorption from fluid into blood
- 3. Tubular secretion- tubular secretion from blood into fluid.
What direction does urine go in?
Renal corpuscle-->proximal convoluted tubule-->loop of henle-->early distal convoluted tubule-->late distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct.
What are the effects of angiotensin II?
Increases reabsorption of Na+, other solutes, and water, which increases blood volume.
What are the effects of Aldosterone?
Increase secretion of K+ and reabsorption of Na+ and Cl-;water, increases reabsorption of water, which increases blood volume.
What are the effects of ADH/ vasopressin?
Increases facultative reabsorption of water, which deceases osmolarity of body fluids.
What are the effects of ANP ( Atrial natriuretic peptide)?
Increase excretion of Na+ in urine; increase urine output and thus decrease blood volume.
What are the effects of PTH ( parathyroid hormone)?
Increases reabsorption of Ca2+
What triggers the release of angiotensin II?
low blood volume or low blood pressure
What triggers the release of aldosterone?
increased angiotensin II level and increased level of plasma K+
What triggers the release of antidiuretic hormone (ADH)?
Increased osmolarity of extracellular fluid or decreased blood volume.
What triggers the release of ANP ( atrial natriuretic)?
stretching of atria of heart
What triggers the release of PTH ( parathyroid hormone)?
Decreased level of plasma Ca2+
What are the 3 mechanisms of ATP generation?
- 1. Substrate-level phosphorylation
- 2. Oxidative phosphorylation
- 3. Photophosphorylation
What happens in Substrate-level phosphorylation?
It generates ATP by transferring a high-energy phosphate group from an intermediate phosphorylated metabolic compound directly to ADP.
What happens in oxidative phosphorylation?
Removes electrons from organic compounds and passes them through a series of electronacceptors (called the electrontransport chain) to molecules of oxygen.
What happens in Photophosphorylation?
occurs only in chloryphill containing plant cells
What are the 4 sets of reactions in cellular respiration?
- 1. Glycolysis
- 2. Formation of acetyl coenzyme A
- 3. Krebs Cycle reactions
- 4. Electron trasport chain reactions
What is cellular respiration?
The oxidation of glucose to produce ATP.
What is glycolysis?
a set of reactions in which one glucose molecule is oxidized and two molecules of pyruvic acid are produced. It also produces two molecules of ATP and two energy containing NADH+H+
What is the formation of acetyl coenzyme A?
A transition step that prepares pyruvic acid for entrance into the Krebs Cycle. Also produces energy-containing NADH+H+ and CO2.
What happens in the krebs cycle reactions?
oxidized acetyl coenzyme A and produce CO2, ATP, energy containing NADH+H+, and FADH2.
What happens in the electron transport chain reaction?
Oxidize NADH+H+ and FADH2 and transfer their electrons through a series of electron carriers.
What do gonads do?
produce sperm and secrete hormones.
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