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Commercial sports growth
- Market economy
- Large densely populated cities
- A standard of living that provides people with time money media and transportation
- Large amounts of capital
- Culture emphasizing consumption and material status symbols.
Corporate sponsors and Branding
- Economic motives and the globalization of commercial sports
- Sport org's look for global markets.
- -FIFA NFL NBA seek global exposure and expansion
- Corp's use sports as vehicles for global expansion
- To make $
- Establish ideological outposts in minds of people around the world by sponsoring enjoyment and pleasure.
Stadiums and subsidies-
- A stadium and team create jobs
- Stadium construction infuses money into the local economy
- Team attracts other businesses
- Team attracts media attention to boost tourism and economic development
- Team creates positive psychic and social benefits-social unity, civic pride, and sense of personal well-being.
Stadium Subsidies-Arguments against
- Stadium jobs are seasonal and offer low pay except to athletes and executives
- Construction materials often are bough outside the local area
- New businesses often are franchises located in other cities
- Discretionary money is limited
- Feeling good with macho orientations does not benefit everyone.
Team vs. Individual Sport $
- The large majority of pro athletes make limited income
- The super contracts and mega salaries of a few athletes have distored popular ideas about athlete income.
- Income among top athletes has risen recently because
- 1. Legal status and rights have improved
- 2. League revenues have increased
- Individual Sports
- Many athletes do not make enough to pay expenses.
- There are increasing disparities between top money winners and other athletes
- Top male heavyweight boxers make most
Amateur athletes vs. Professional athletes
- Rights depend on the governing bodies that control various sports
- Income depends on rules, and endorsements (which vary with celebrity status and corp interest)
- Most intercollegiate athletes in the US are controlled by the NCAA-these athletes have few rights
- aren't directly controlled by a boss or manager
- -Forms of reserve system have been used to restrict the freedom of athletes to play where they wish
- -Players' associations and unions have challenged this system and struggled for free agency
- -free agency has been achieved to varying degrees in major team sports
- -Labor rights for athletes in minor sports are limited
Organizations and control of sport
- organizations who control amateur sports have an interst in making money and gaining power.
- with commercialization,
- Control shifts away from athletes and decisions are less likely to reflect their interests.
- Control shifts toward owners, corporate sponsors advertisers media personnel marketing and publicity staff, professional management staff accountants and agents
- -Athletes tend to defer to decisions of these people, because their financial interests are at stake