Semantics/pragmatics

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Author:
dylan
ID:
80528
Filename:
Semantics/pragmatics
Updated:
2011-04-18 21:49:56
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Elang
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Description:
Elang 223 Semantics unit
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  1. Systematic study of meaning in language, especially word and sentence meaning
    Semantics
  2. Society's definition
    Connotation
  3. Dictionary's definition
    Denotation
  4. "Time is Money"
    Conceptual metaphor
  5. Process of semantic change in which a word with a specific meaning develops one or more related senses and so becomes a word of more general significance. Ex: the word "ceiling."
    Generalization
  6. Process of semantic change in which a word with a general meaning becomes a word with more specific meaning. The word "wit" for example
    Specialization
  7. "Cell phone." Cell comes from a monk's "cell" and is associated with it because it is a small, self contained unit
    Metaphorical extension
  8. Word or expression with a positive connotation used in place of a neutral word. "Passing away" instead of "Dying."
    Euphemism
  9. Semantic process in which a term of neutral significance takes on a negative meaning
    Pejoration
  10. Semantic process by which a word means something "better" than it had at an earlier stage of history
    Amelioration
  11. Approach to language that conceives language as "performing actions."
    Speech act theory
  12. The sounds and words that compose the supposedly referential meaning of an utterance
    Locutionary act
  13. Intended of conventional meaning that can accompany a locutionary act within the compass of an utterance
    illocutionary act
  14. Utterance which represents a state of affairs, characterized by stating, claiming, insisting, suggesting, etc. (also called assertives)
    Representatives
  15. Designed to get the person addressed to do something, such as asking, ordering or challenging.
    Directives
  16. Requires the speaker to do something such as promise, threaten, intend or refrain
    Commissives
  17. Expresses a speaker's mental state, such as apologizing, congratulating or welcoming.
    Expressive
  18. Act that brings about the state of affairs to which it refers. Blessing, firing, sentencing or bidding.
    Declaration
  19. Effect achieved by an utterance on a hearer
    Perlocutionary act
  20. Speech act in which the loctutionary act corresponds exactly to an illocutionary act
    Direct speech act
  21. Locutionary act that doesn't directly correspond to an illocutionary act
    Indirect speech act
  22. Utterances that specifically state the action they perform. "I now pronounce you man and wife."
    Performative speech act
  23. In conversation, the principle that participants will cooperate with one another
    Cooperative principle
  24. Quantity, quality, relation and manner
    Grice's Maxims
  25. Desire to be unimpeded in one's actions which in part, determines conversational politeness
    Negative face
  26. Desire to be approved of or liked by other participants in conversation
    Positive face
  27. Any utterance that challenges the level of politeness in conversation
    Face threatening act
  28. Respecting another person's negative face, especially by using markers of deference, apology, etc
    Negative politeness
  29. Enhancing the positive face of others in conversation, for instance, by means of compliments and other markers of friendliness
    Positive politeness

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