Variety of language,whether regional or social, systematically different from other varieties of the same language in structural or lexical features
Systematic phonological variation among dialects
Defined by Leonard Bloomfield as a range of dialects spoken across some geographical area that differ only slightly between neighboring areas but as one travels in any direction, these differences accumulate such that speakers are opposite ends of the ____________ are no longer mutually intelligible
Study of language in use, especially in terms of variation
Experiment by Labov where he asked employees at Macy's to say "fourth floor."
Labov's roticity RAS
Groups of speakers who share linguistic norms and ideologies
Major factors in language variation within speech communities
Age, gender, socioeconomic class, race/ethnicity
Language in which inflection, rather than word order, mostly indicates grammatical function within a sentence
English spoken from 450 (fall of Rome) - 1066 (Norman Conquest)
English spoken from 1066 - 1476 (Arrival of the printing press)
Influences of middle english
Norman and Latin
A major chanvge in the pronunciation of the English language that took place in southern england between 1450 and 1750
Great vowel shift
Factors in rise of Middle english
Great vowel shift, Chaucer, Black Plague
English spoken from 1476 - 1776
Early modern english
Factors in rise of Early modern english
Printing press, Great Vowel Shift, Shakespeare
How did Shakespeare impact the language?
At the time English was unstructured and was absorbing words from tons of other languages. Sheakespeare wrote in English, "dignified" the language because he was identified as "brilliant." Also coined a ton of words.
How did the KJV of the Bible impact English language?
English protestants required everyone to have access to Biblical texts in English. Reading became a matter of religious practice.
Factors contributing to world English
British Empire, WWII, English in the USA
How did WWII contribute to Modern English?
Most Allied powers were English speaking countries all over the world (USA, England, Australia)
What is the official language of the US?
Not English. English is only the defacto language
The belief that every member of a society, irrespective of his native language, should learn and use the dominant language of the society in which he lives
Drawbacks of assimilation
Langauge acquisition is difficult
benefits of assimilation
Puts everyone on equal footing
Denotes the restoration and development of an indigenous langauge along with its adoption by the state as an official language. Examples: Hebrew in the sate of Israel
The recognition and support of multiple languages within one society