A and P: Exam 4

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A and P: Exam 4
2011-04-19 03:18:33

Exam Four
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  1. exocrine gland
    gland that secretes to the surface or outward through a duct.
  2. endocrine gland
    • ductless gland that secrets hormones internally
    • usually right into blood stream and circulation
  3. target cell
    cells that have a receptor for a particular hormone. When a hormone binds to the receptor of a target cell it promotes a response from the cell
  4. water souble hormones
    • cannot pass directly through the membrane
    • needs plasma membrane to have a receptor
    • protien hormones
  5. lipid soluble hormone
    • can pass directly through the membrane to act on receptors that are inside of the cell (inracellular receptors)
    • steriod and fatty acid hormones.
  6. nuclear receptors
    lipid hormones
  7. second messanger
    • intracellular mediator
    • produced with in a cell and binds to a receptors or enzymes and regulates their activities
    • causes a cascade effect
    • causes changes inside of the cell
  8. steriod receptors
    • located in cytoplasm or in the nucleus of the cell
    • intracellular receptor
    • when a hormone binds to the receptor, the hormone-receptor complex binds to DNA and stimulates synthesis of specific protiens that are resposible for producing the cells response
  9. carrier protiens
    • bind to plasma-protiens.
    • acts as a resivors for the hormones
    • lipid soluble (steriod and thyroid) hormones
  10. half-life
    the length of the time for a hormone's blood level to be decreased by half
  11. What does hormone receptors having a high affintiy for hormone binding cause?
    • its means that a hormone will result in a significant amount of receptors with hormones bond to them
    • the presence or absence of a specific receptor molecules determine which cells will or will not respond to each hormone
  12. Hypothalamus
    • endocrine gland that regulates the secretory activity of the pituitary gland
    • hormones: antidiuretic (ADH) and Oxytocin (OT)
  13. antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
    • prevents large outputs of urine
    • post pituitary
  14. oxytocin (OT)
    • causes contraction of smooth muscle cells fo the uterus and milk ejection
    • posterior pituitary
  15. growth hormone (GHRH)
    increased growth hormone secretion
  16. growth hormone (GHIH)
    decreases growth of hormone secretion
  17. thryotropin(TRH)
    increased thyriod stimulatory hormone secretion
  18. corticotropin (CRH)
    increased adrencorticotropic hormone secretion
  19. gonagotropin (GnRH)
    • increased secretion of luteinizing hormone
    • follicle stiumlating hormone
  20. prolactin inhibiting hormone (PIH)
    decreased prolactin secretion
  21. prolactin releasing hormone (PRH)
    increased prolactin secretion
  22. anterior pituitary gland
    • regulates body functions
    • tropic hormones
    • hormones: growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, melanocyte-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone
  23. growth hormone (GH)
    • anterior pituitary gland
    • increases growth in tissues
    • increased amino acid uptake and protien synthesis
    • increased breakdown of lipids and release of fatty acids from cells
    • increased glycogen synthesis
    • increased blood gluclose level
    • increased somatomedin protien
  24. thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • anterior pituitary gland
    • increased thyroid hormone secretion
  25. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • anterior pituitary gland
    • increased glucocoticoid hormone secretion
  26. melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    • anterior pituitary gland
    • increased melanin production in melanocytes to make skin darker in color
  27. luteinizing hormone (LH)
    • anterior pituitary gland
    • ovulation and progesterone production in ovaries
    • testosterone synthesis and support for sperm cell production in testies
  28. follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • anterior pituitary gland
    • follicle maturation and estrogen secretion in ovaries
    • support for sperm cell production in the testies
  29. prolactin
    milk production in the lactating women. increased response of follicle to LH and FSH
  30. thyroid gland
    • major metabolic hormone of the body
    • affects almost all cells in the body
    • found on the anterior to the thyroid cartilage and superior to the trachea
    • hormones: T3,T4, and calcitonin
  31. thyroid hormones (T3 and T4)
    • thyriod follicles increased metablic rate
    • essential for normal process of growth and maturation
  32. calcitonin
    • parafollicular cells
    • decreases rate of breakdown of bone by osteoclasts
    • prevention of a large increase in blood calcium levels
  33. parathyroid gland
    • 2 pair of 2 oval masses on the posteior side of the thyriod gland
    • important in controlling blood calcium
  34. parathyroid hormone
    • increased rate of breakdone of bone by osteoclasts
    • increase reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys
    • increase absorption of calcium from the small intestine
  35. thymus
    • located inferior to the thyroid gland and posterior to the sternum development of the immune system
    • only active in infants and adolescences
  36. thyomin
    development and function of the immune system
  37. adrenal galnd
    superior to the kidney
  38. epinephrine/norephinephrine
    • released from the adrenal medulla
    • increased cardiac output
    • increased blood flow to skeletal muscles
    • increased blood flow to the heart
    • vasoconstriction of blood vessels
    • increased release of gluclose and fatty acids into the blood
    • preperation of physical activity
  39. glucocorticoids (corisol)
    • released from the adrenal cortex
    • increased protien and fat breakdown
    • increased gluclose production
    • inhibition of immune response
    • decreased inflammation
  40. mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
    • released by the adrenal cortex
    • increased sodium reabsorption
    • increased potassium and hyrdogen excreation
    • enhancedwater reabsorption
  41. androgens
    • released by the adrenal cortex
    • females: development of secondary sex characteristics (pubic and axillary hair)
  42. pancreas
    regulates sugar
  43. insulin
    • increases uptake and use of gluclose and amino acids
    • released by the pancreas
  44. glucagon
    • released by the pancreas
    • increases the breakdown of glyclogen
    • release of gluclose into the circulatory system
  45. testies
    • release testosterone:
    • aids in spermogenesis
    • development of genitalia
    • maintenance of functional development organs
    • secondary sex characteristics
    • sexual behavior
  46. ovary
    releases estrogens and progesterone
  47. estrogen
    • uterine and mammary glands development and function
    • maturation of genitalia
    • secondary sex charactersitics
    • sexual behavior and menstrual cycle
  48. progesterone
    • uterine and mammary glands development and function
    • maturation of genitalia
    • secondary sex charactersitics
    • and menstrual cycle
  49. Pineal Body
    releases melatonin
  50. melatonin
    • inhibition of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion, inhibiting reproduction
    • peaks at night
  51. Disorders of the thyriod
    graves disease: overactive thyriod
  52. type 1 diabetes
    islets dont make enough insulin
  53. type 2 diabetes
    receptors are faulty
  54. double gland
    • pancreas becauase it has two parts
    • exocrine: acinar cells produce digestive pancreatic enzymes
    • endocrine: regulates blood sugar
  55. pituitary gland
    • in sella turcia
    • shaped like a stalk and is connected to the hypothalamus
    • postieror pituitary: releases hormones that are made in the hypothalamus and stored in the postieror pituitary gland
    • anterior pituitary: hypothalamus releases hormones that infulence the anterior pituitary gland secretions
  56. hematopoiesis
    • formation and development of blood cells from myeloid tissue
    • occurs in fetus
    • red bone marrow
  57. hemocytoblast
    • stem cells
    • differeniate and give rise to different cell lines
  58. formed elements
    • red blood cells (erythrocytes)
    • white blood cells (leukocytes)
    • platelets (thrombocytes)
  59. erythropoiesis
    • the process in which new red blood cells are produced.
    • 4 days for one cell to be produced
  60. steps for red blood cell formation
    • 1. proerythroblast
    • 2.erthroblast
    • 3. reticulocyte (no nucleus)
    • 4. mature red blood cells
  61. kindey and red blood cell formation
    • when oxygen in decreased the kidneys release erythropoietin into ciruclation
    • this then stimulates red blood cell production in red bone marrow which will then increase blood oxygen levels
  62. plasma
    • 92% water
    • 7% plasma protiens (albumin, globulins, and fibrinogen)
    • 1% ions (neutreints and gases)

    90% of plasma protiens are made in the liver
  63. blood
    • 45% formed elements
    • 55% plasma
    • connective tissue
  64. albumin
    • plasma protien
    • osmotic pressure of blood
    • transport fatty acids and steriods to thyroid hormone
    • transport molecules can bind to hormones
  65. globulin
    • plasma protiens
    • antibodies = immunoglobins
    • clotting factors
    • transport protien can bind to hormones
  66. fibrinogen
    • plasma protien
    • clotting factor
    • conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin
  67. red blood cells
    • transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
    • erythrocyte
    • hemoglobin red in pigment
    • rapid gas exchange
  68. white blood cells
    • involved in immunity
    • leukocyte
    • defend against pathogens remove toxins and waste
    • connective and lymphiod tissue
    • increase white infection, inflammation, alergies, and disease
    • decrease diease (leukmia)
  69. erythrocytes
    red blood cells
  70. leukocytes
    • white blood cells
    • lack hemoglobin
    • 5 kinds
    • 1. neutrophils: bacterial
    • 2. eosinophils: allergens
    • 3. basophils: damaged tissue
    • 4. monocytes: engulf
    • 5.lympocytes: body defense
  71. neutrophil
    • white blood cell
    • granulocyte
    • most common type of wbc
    • phagocytize foreign substances
    • secrete lysozymes (enzymes) that destroy bacterias
  72. basophil
    • white blood cell
    • granulocyte
    • least common wbc
    • releases histamine and other chemicals to promote inflammation
    • releases heparin which prevents the formation of clots
  73. eosinophils
    • white blood cell
    • granulocyte
    • releases chemicals that reduce inflammation
    • elevated in people who have allergies
  74. lymophocytes
    • white blood cell
    • agranulocyte
    • smallest wbc
    • originates in red bone marrow and goes to lymphatic tissue
    • T and B cells
  75. monocyte
    • white blood cell
    • agranulocyte
    • largest wbc
    • become macrophage when they leave the blood and phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and cell fragments
  76. granulocytes
    • large cytoplasmic granules
    • neutrophils
    • basophils
    • eosinophils
  77. agranulocytes
    • need a microscope to see granules
    • lymphocytes
    • monocytes
  78. how do leukocytes move?
    the cell projects a cytoplasmic extension that attaches to the object then the rest of the cell's cytoplasm flows into the extension
  79. platelets
    • small cellular pieces from the breakdown of megakaryocytes in red blood marrow
    • accumulation of platelets can seal up small break in blood vessels by sticking to the exposed collagen
    • when cell is severely damage it results in blood clotting
  80. blood clot
    made up of fibrin which traps blood cells, platelets and fluid.
  81. clotting cascade
    • once clotting begins it continues until the end
    • each step is triggered by the previous one
  82. hemostasis
    • stopping of bleeding
    • 30-60 mins
    • 1. vascular phase: spasm endothelial cells contract and become sticky
    • 2. platelet phase: platelets adhere and form a plug
    • 3. coagulation phase: blood clotting cascade of chain reactions
  83. fibinolysis
    when blood clot eventually dissolves
  84. ABO blood groups
    • antigens on the surface of red blood cells
    • catagorized into blood groups
  85. Type A blood
    • A antigens
    • B antibodies
  86. Type B blood
    • B antigens
    • A antibodies
  87. Type AB blood
    • A and B antigens (Ab)
    • universal acceptor becasue it has no antibodies
  88. Type O
    • has NO A or B antigens
    • universal donor because it does not have antigens and there are not attack from the recipient's antibodies
  89. 3 layers that make up the heart wall
    • 1. outer epicardium: visceral pericardium outer most layer
    • 2. myocardium: straighted cardiac muscle
    • 3. endocardium: endothelialceells that line the chambers
  90. pericardial cavity
    • between the parietal and the visceral pericardium
    • fill with paricardial (serous) fluid that decrease friction as the heart moves
    • surrounds the heart
  91. paricardial sac
    • pericardium
    • makes up the pericardial cavity
  92. pericardium
    • 3 layers.
    • 1. fibrous pericardium: connective tissues that anchors the heart to the heart wall to diaphram
    • 2. parietal pericardium: lines fibrous pericardium and is against the cavity wall
    • 3. visceral layer:covers the surface of the heart
  93. coronary arteries
    • 1st branches off of the aorta
    • blood supply to the heart
  94. myocardial infarction
    • blockage of coranary arteries
    • heart attack
  95. atria
    • recieving chamber
    • where blood enters the heart
    • contract moving blood through the ventricles
  96. pectinate
    bundles of muscle in the atria
  97. ventricles
    • discharging chambers
    • contract moving blood to the lungs
  98. right ventricle
    • pumps deoxygenated blood to the pulmonary trunk
    • to the lung
  99. left ventricle
    • pumps oxygenated blood into the aorta
    • thicker wall because it needs more force and strength to pump the blood to the rest of the body
  100. trabeculae carnea
    • papillary muscles in the AV valves
    • ridges of muscle in the ventricles
  101. left atrium
    • on the back of the heart
    • where oxygenated blood enters and goes to the left ventricle
  102. right atrium
    deoxygenated blood enters and goes to the left ventricle
  103. tricuspid valve
    • atrioventricular valve
    • betweem right atrium and the right ventricle
    • 3 cusps
  104. bicuspid valves
    • atrioventricular valve
    • between the left atrium and the left ventricle
    • 2 cusps
  105. semilunar valves
    • located at the base of the large blood vessels carrying blood away from the ventricle
    • aortic semilunar valve: in aorta
    • pulmonary semilunar valve: in pulmonary trunk
  106. chordae tendineae
    • anchors cusps of the AV valves to the papillary muscles
    • tightens before ventricles contract
  107. aorta
    • great vessel
    • from left ventricle
    • blood goes to the systemic circuit
  108. pulmonary trunk
    • from the right ventricle
    • seperates into the right and left pulmonary arteries
    • carries deoxigenated blood to the lungs
  109. pulmonary viens
    carry oxygenated blood from the lungs back to the heart
  110. pulmonary artiers and viens
    • arteries: carries deoxygenated blood away from the heart
    • viens: carries oxygenated blood to the heart
  111. superior and inferior vena cava
    bring deoxygenated blood from the body to the heart
  112. path of blood
    • deoxyginated: right atrium to the superior and inferior vena cava, to the coronary sinur through the tricuspid valve to the right ventricle to the pulmonary trunk through the pumonary semilunar valve to the pulmonary arteries to the lungs
    • oxygenated: pulmonary viens bring back oxygenated blood to the left atrium through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle throught the aortic semilunar valve through the aorta to the coronary viens to the rest of the body
  113. function synctium
    • act as one unit
    • in sync
    • gap junctions within the intercalated discs form electrical synapse by allowing ions to pass from cell to cell transmitting current along the heart
  114. cardiac muscle
    • straited
    • centrally located nucleus
    • contract by sliding filaments
  115. intercalated discs
    connect the cardiac muscle cells
  116. autorythmicity
    • stimulates itself to contract at regular intervals
    • spontaneously depolarize
    • depolarization spreads across the gap junctions from cell to cell
  117. SA node
    • sinoatrial node
    • pacemaker
    • upper right atrium
    • has the fastest depolarization rat and sets the pace for the entire heart
    • initates depolarization across atria
  118. AV node
    • atrioventricular node
    • lower right atrium
    • delayes impulse which allows atria to contract before the ventricles
    • directs impulse towards the ventricles through the bundle of his
  119. Bundle of His
    • only connection between the atria and then ventricles
    • interventricular septum
    • causes ventricles to contract
  120. skeletal action potential
    2 milliseconds
  121. cardiac action potentail
    300 milliseconds
  122. plateau phase
    • causes elongated action potentials
    • causes long refractory periods
    • prevents tetnus
    • when potassium leaves the cells it cancles out the calcium (new) which prolongs the refractory period
  123. sympathetic nervous system
    • causes an increase in heart rate
    • increases strength of the contraction
  124. parasympathetic nervous system
    • decrease heart rate
    • decreases strenght of contractions
  125. baroreceptos
    • in carotid artery and aorta
    • sense blood pressure changes
  126. medulla
    • influences the autonomic control of blood pressure
    • sensors send infor
  127. P wave
    • atrail depolarization
    • precedes atrail contraction
  128. QRS complex
    • ventricular depolarization
    • precedes ventricular contraction
  129. T wave
    • ventricular repolarization
    • preceeds ventricular relaxation
  130. pressure changes
    produced in chambers as a result of contraction are resposible for the blood movement
  131. systole
  132. distole
    relaxtion of the chambers
  133. atrial systol
    contraction of the atrium
  134. ventricular systol
    contraction of the ventricles
  135. Cardiac Cycle
    • atrial filling: blood flows into the atria during relaxation 70% flows passively into the ventricles
    • atrial systol: SA node depolarizes, p wave, atria contract and the other 30% of blood flows into the ventricles
    • ventricle filling: AV valve open
    • ventriclur systol: AV valves close and 1st sound av node to the purkinje fibers, QRS complex and the ventricle contract the blood initially stays in the chamber then pressure builds and forces the semilunar valves to open blood is ejected into the aorta or into the pulmonary trunk
    • ventricle distole: ventricle relaxes and the pressure decreases and the semilunar valves close 2nd sounds
  136. cardiac output
    • amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute
    • stroke volume x heart rate
  137. stroke volume
    • amount of blood released by the ventricle during each contraction
    • mL/beat
  138. heart rate
    • how many times the heart contracts per minutes
    • beats/min
    • avg 75 beats/min
  139. arterioles
    smallest branches of the arteries
  140. capillaries
    • smalles blood vessel
    • lovation of gas exchange between blood and interstitual fluid
  141. venules
    collect blood from the capillaries
  142. layers of arteries and veins
    • tunica external: connective tissue covering outermost layer
    • tunica media: thickest made of smooth muscle and is elastic
    • tunica intima: endothelial linging simple sqaumous inter elastic membrane
  143. simple sqaumous epithelium
    facilitates the exchange of gases, nutrients, and water products
  144. hydrostolic pressure
    • the pressure exerted by a fluid
    • forces water and small solutes out of the capillary wall
  145. lymph
    • meandering network of lymphatic vessels
    • lymphocyte cell
  146. lympocyte
    destroy foreign invaders
  147. pathogen
    a diease producing agent
  148. immunity
    the ability to resist infection or disease
  149. cellular immunity
    T lymphocyte coming in contact with the target cell it is attacking (t cells)
  150. humoral immunity
    • blood immunity
    • b cells changing into plasma cell
    • plasma cell makes and secretes protien antibodies in the blood stream
    • the antibodies attack the target cells
  151. adaptive immunity
    antigens and t cells cause the b cells to dived and become plasma cells and memory b cells
  152. t-lympocytes
    • formes in bone marrow and mature in the thymus
    • adaptive immunity
    • recognize abnormal cells
    • 1. cytotoxic Tcells: destroys by apoptosis, cytokines
    • 2. helper Tcells: regulate B cells and cytoxic cells
    • 3. memory Tcels remember antigen and hangs around to wait for the next attack
  153. lymphoid node
    distributed across lymphatic vessels and filter lymph removing bateria and other materials
  154. lymphatic nodules
    denser arrangements of lymphatic tissue in spleen and lymphnodes
  155. spleen
    • superior corner of the abdominal cavity
    • smooth muscle
    • destory defective red blood cells and detects and responds to forign substances
  156. macrophage
    large phagocytic cells
  157. G protiens
    bind with receptors and the inner surface of the plasma membrane. the cell and receptor change shape and bind
  158. paracrine
    released to local/neighbor
  159. autocrine
    acts on cell that produced it
  160. hormones controlled by
    • blood levels of chemicals
    • other hormones
    • nervous system
  161. tropic hormones
    regulate secretion of hormones from other endocrine glands
  162. hormone binding causes
    • change in membrane permeability
    • activate or deactive enzymes
    • cause secretion
    • cause mitosis
  163. up regulation
    an increase in the number of receptors on the surface of a target cell to make it more sensitive to a hormone or other organ
  164. down regulation
    • decrease in the number of receptors on a target cell make it less sensitve
    • medications
  165. iodine
    necessary for the synthesis of T3 and T4
  166. insulin
    • stimulates gylclogen formation which inhances gluclose and fatty acide transport into cells
    • storage of energy
  167. gluclose levels fall
    alpha islets cells release glucogen
  168. glucogen
    stimulates glyclogen breakdown and the release of gluclose by the liver
  169. fuctions of the blood
    • transports gasses, nutrients, and waste products
    • transport processed molecules
    • transport regulartory molecules (hormones)
    • regulation of osmosis
    • regulation of PH and buffers
    • maitence of body temp
    • protection again foreign substances
  170. hemoglobin
    • protien that carries oxygen
    • low oxygen: hemoglobin releases oxygen at tissues and picks up carbon dioxide
    • high oxygen: hemoglobin binds to oxygen at lungs and releases the carbon dioxide
  171. blood antigens
    molecules on the surface of red blood cells
  172. properties of arteries
    • elastic: allows arteries to absorb pressure waves that come with each heart beat
    • contractile: smooth muscle decreases diameter and increase pressure
    • sympathetic: ANS cause vasoconstriction
  173. circle of willis
    • grouping of arteries near the base of the brain
    • supplies all of the blood to the brain
  174. properites of viens
    • tunica interna is thinners
    • tunica media is made out of less smooth muscle
    • lower pressure
    • valves or folds in tunica media
  175. valves
    prevent backflow
  176. b-lymphocytes
    • formed and matured in bone marrow
    • release to lymphiod tissues
    • adaptive immunity