BioChem Final

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BioChem Final
2011-04-19 01:58:03

For Biochem final
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  1. Name the reactant and product, and any co factors: aconitase?
  2. Name the reactant and product, and any cofactors for isocitrate dehydrogenase?
  3. Name the reactant product and any cofactos for alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase.
    • Part of TCA cycle
  4. Show the step in TCA cycle of substrate-level phosphorylation.
    • Nucleotide diphosphate kinase leads to ATP production from GTP.
  5. Name the products, reactants, and cofactors involved in succinate dehydrogenase.
  6. You hydrate furmate to form what molecule?
    • Malate
  7. Name the products, reactants, and cofactors for enzyme malate dehydrogenase.
  8. What is the main regulating enzyme for the TCA cycle?
    • PDH
  9. What happens to PDH in a state of starvation?
    PDH Kinase increases, which deactivates PDH. This shuts down gylcolysis and prevents oxidation of pyruvate to CO2.
  10. In what cell types are PDH Kinase activated?
    Activated in tumor cells.
  11. In what type of cells are PDH Phosphatase activated
    • Activated in insulin cells in liver adipose.
    • Inactivated by NADH.
  12. Isocitrate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase are inhibited by what?
    • Inhibited by increase in ATP and increase in NADH.
    • This means that there is an increase in citrate, which inhibits PFK (shuts off gylcolysis).
  13. What are the reactions that replenish OAA?
    • pyruvate carboxylase
    • PEPCKase (cofactor GDP and CO2 added)
  14. What is the reaction that replenishes malate?
    • Reverse reaction:
  15. What is oxidative phosporylation?
    • It is the syntheiss of ATP powered by re-oxidation of NADH or FADH2.
    • Major source of ATP synthesis.
  16. Where does oxidative phosphorylation take place?
    In the mitochondria matrix and inner mitochondria membrane.
  17. What are the two phases of oxidative phosphorylation?
    • Oxidative phase: refers to NADH and FADH2 oxidized to H2O.
    • Phosphorylation phase: refers to ATP synthesis
  18. What is redox potiental mean?
    Is the measure of how strongly compound wants an electron.
  19. Define what an oxidizing agent and reducing agent is.
    • Oxidizing agent: accept electrons and are reduced in a redox reaction.
    • Reducing agent: donates electrons and is oxidized in a redox reaction.
  20. The tendency for a reactant to be oxidized or reduced is found through its reducation potiental E. Write the equation that shows the relation of delta G and delta E to show the spontaneous direction of a reaction.
    deltaG^o= -nF(deltaE^o)
  21. What is Faraday's constant value?
    96,500 J/Vxmol