chapter7

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chapter7
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chapter7
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  1. Three types of muscle tissue?
    • 1) skeletal (striated, voluntary)
    • 2) visceral or smooth (nonstriated, involuntary)
    • 3) cardiac (striated, involuntary)
  2. Basic functions of muscle?
    • 1) movement (primary)
    • 2) maintain posture
    • 3) heat generation
  3. General characteristics of muscle?
    • 1) excitability
    • 2) contractility
    • 3) extensibility
    • 4) elasticity
  4. Microscopic struture/anatomy (skeletal muscle)?
    • 1) sarcolemma (plasma membrane)
    • 2) sarcoplasm (cytoplasm)
    • 3) specialized organelles
  5. Sarcolemma (plasma membrane)
    surrounds sarcoplasm w/ openings scattered across surface that lead into a network of narrow tubules calles transverse tubules (T tubules)
  6. Myofibrils
    • 1) encircled by T-tubules
    • 2) 1-2um diameter - as long as the entire muscle
    • 3) hudreds to thousands are contained in each muscle fiber
    • 4) bundles of thick & thin myofilaments
    • 5) responsible for muscle fiber contraction
  7. Myofilaments
    protein filament that consist primarily of the proteins actin & myosin
  8. Actin
    • 1) protein found in protein filaments contained in myofilaments
    • 2) actin molecules are found in the thin filaments
    • 3) attracted to myosin
  9. Myosin
    • 1) protein found in protein filaments contained in myofilaments
    • 2) myosin molecules are found in the thick filaments
    • 3) attacted to actin
  10. Mitochondrea & Granules of Glycogen
    • 1) scattered among the myofibrils, a source of glucose
    • 2) breakdown of glucose & the activity of the mitochondria provide the ATP needed to power muscle contraction
  11. Sarcoplasmic Reticulum (SR)
    • 1) forms tubular network around each myofibril
    • 2) specialized for of endoplasmic riticulum
  12. T-tubules (transverse tubules)
    • 1) create a network of narrow tubules that form passageways through the muscle fiber
    • 2) filled w/ extracellular fluid
  13. Terminal Cisternae
    • 1) expanded chamber of SR containing high concentration of calsium ions
    • 2) wherever T-tubules encircles a miyofibril it is tightly bound to the membranes of the SR
    • 3) located on either side of where T-tubules encircles a microfibril
  14. Triad
    it is formed where SR encircles a myofibril & a T-tubule lies sandwiched between a pair of terinal cisternae
  15. Muscle contraction begins...
    when stored calsium ions are released from the terminal cisternae into the sarcoplasm.
  16. Sarcomeres
    • 1) what myofilament (thick & thin fillaments) are organized into
    • 2) they are repeating functioning units
    • 3) each myofibril consists of aprox 10k arranged end to end
    • 4) smallest functional unit of the muscle fiber
    • 5) interactions between thick & thin filaments here are responsible for muscle contraction
  17. Rigor Mortis
    • 1) aprx 6hrs after death
    • 2) skeletal muscles have depleted all glucose & ATP molecules
    • 3) waste products accumulate (metabolic acids)
    • 4) ATP gone -> sarcoplasmic riticulum cannot remove calcium ions from the sarcoplasm
    • 5) myosin fibers can't separate from actin fibers, & rigor mortis, sustained contraction, sets in
    • 6) 12-24hrs later, lysosomal enzymes from muscle cells breakdown contracted myofilaments, & muscles relax

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