Nervous System

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halvob
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80639
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Nervous System
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2011-04-19 22:47:45
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Med terms ch. 8
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  1. cerebr/o
    cerebrum (largest part of the brain)
  2. cerebell/o
    cerebellum (little brain)
  3. crani/o
    skull
  4. encephal/o
    entire brain
  5. esthesi/o
    sensation
  6. gangli/o
    ganglion (knot)
  7. gli/o
    glue
  8. gnos/o
    knowing
  9. kinesi/o
    movement
  10. lex/o
    word or phrase
  11. mening/o, meningi/o
    meninges (membrane)
  12. myel/o
    spinal cord or bone marrow
  13. narc/o
    stupor or sleep
  14. neur/o
    nerve
  15. phas/o
    speech
  16. phob/o
    exaggerated fear or sensitivity
  17. phor/o
    carry or bear
  18. phren/o, psych/o, thym/o
    mind
  19. schiz/o
    split
  20. somat/o
    body
  21. somn/o, somn/i, hypn/o
    sleep
  22. spin/o
    spine (thorn)
  23. spondyl/o, vertebr/o
    vertebra
  24. stere/o
    three-dimensional or solid
  25. tax/o
    order or coordination
  26. thalam/o
    thalamus (a room)
  27. ton/o
    tone or tension
  28. top/o
    place
  29. ventricul/o
    ventricle (belly or pouch)
  30. cata-
    down
  31. -asthenia
    weakness
  32. -lepsy
    seizure
  33. -mania
    condition of abnormal impulse toward
  34. -paresis
    slight paralysis
  35. -plegiaa
    paralysis
  36. central nervous system (CNS)
    brain and spinal cord
  37. brain
    portion of the central nervous system contained within the cranium
  38. cerebrum
    largest portion of the brain; divided into right and left halves, known as cerebral hemispheres, which are connected by a bridge of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum; lobes of the cerebrum are named after the skull bones they underlie
  39. frontal lobe
    anterior section of each cerebral hemisphere; responsible for voluntary muscle movement and personality
  40. parietal lobe
    portion posterior to the frontal lobe; responsible for sensations such as pain, temperature, and touch
  41. temporal lobe
    portion that lies below the frontal lobe; responsible for hearing, taste, and smell
  42. occipital lobe
    portion posterior to the parietal and temporal lobes; responsible for vision
  43. cerebral cortex
    outer layer of the cerebrum consisting of gray matter; responsible for higher mental functions
  44. thalamus/ diencephalon
    each of two gray matter nuclei deep within the brain; responsible for relaying sensory information of the cortex
  45. gyri
    convulutions (mounds) of the cerebral hemispheres
  46. sulci
    shallow grooves that separate gyri
  47. fissures
    deep grooves in the brain
  48. cerebellum
    portion of the brain located below the occipital lobes of the cerebrum; responsible for control and coordination of skeletal muscles
  49. brianstem
    region of the brain that serves as a relay between the cerebrum, cerebellu, and spinal cord; responsible for breathing, heart rate, and body temperature; the three levels are the mesencephalon (midbrain), pons, and medulla oblongata
  50. ventricles
    series of interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brainstem filled with cerebrospinal fluid
  51. cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
    plasma-like clear fluid circulating in and around the brain and spinal cord
  52. spinal cord
    column of nervous tissue from the brainstem through the vertebrae; responsible for nerve conduction to and from the brain and the body
  53. meninges
    three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord, consisting of the dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid mater
  54. peripheral nervous system (PNS)
    nerves that branch from the central nervous system including nerves of the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  55. cranial nerves
    12 pairs of nerves arising from the brain
  56. spinal nerves
    31 pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord
  57. sensory nerves
    nerves that conduct impulses from body parts and carry sensory information to the brain; also called afferent nerves
  58. motor nerves
    nerves that conduct motor impulses form the brain to muscles and glands; also called efferent nerves
  59. autonomic nervous system (ANS)
    nerves that carry involuntary impulses to smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and various glands
  60. hypothalamus
    control center for the autonomic nervous system located below the thalamus (diencephalon)
  61. sympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that is concerned primarily with preparing the body in stressful or emergency situations
  62. parasympathetic nervous system
    division of the autonomic nervous system that is most active in ordinary conditions; it counterbalances the effects of the sympathetic system by restoring the body to the restful state after a stressful experience.
  63. aphasia/dysphasia
    impairment b/c of localized brain injury that affects the understanding, retrieving, and formulating of meaningful and sequential elements of language, as demonstrated by an inability to use or comprehend words; occurs as a result of stroke, head trauma, or disease
  64. coma
    a general term referring to levels of decreased consciousness with varying responsiveness, a common method of assessment is the Glasgwo Coma Scale
  65. delirium
    a state of mental confusion caused by disturbances in cerebral function; the many causes include fever, shock, and drug overdose
  66. dementia
    an impairment of intellectual function characterized by memory loss, disorientation, and confusion
  67. motor deficit
    loss or impairment of muscle function
  68. sensory deficit
    loss or impairment of sensation
  69. neuralgia
    pain along the course of a nerve
  70. paralysis
    temporary or permanent loss of motor control
  71. flaccid paralysis
    defective (flabby) or absent muscle control caused by a nerve lesion
  72. spastic paralysis
    stiff and awkward muscle control caused by a central nervous system disorder
  73. hemiparesis
    partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
  74. sciatica
    pain that follows the pathway of the sciatic nerve, caused by compression or trauma of the nerve or its roots
  75. seizure
    sudden, transient disturbances in brain function resulting from an abnormal firing of nerve impulses; may or may not be associated with convulsion
  76. convulsion
    to pull together; type of seizure that causes a series of sudden involuntary contractions of muscles
  77. syncope
    fainting
  78. tactile stimulation
    evoking a response by touching
  79. hyperesthesia
    increased sensitivity to stimulation such as touch or pain
  80. paresthesia
    abnormal sensation of numbness and tingling w/out objective cause
  81. agnosia
    any of many types of loss of neurologic function involving interpretation of sensory information
  82. astereognosis
    inability to judge the form of an object by touch
  83. atopognosis
    inability to locate a sensation properly, such as an inability to locate a point touched on the body
  84. Alzheimer disease
    disease of structural changes in the brain resulting in an irreversible deterioration that progresses from forgetfulness and disorientation to loss of all intellectual functions, total disability, and death
  85. amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)
    condition of progressive deterioration of motor nerve cells resulting in total loss of voluntary muscle control; symptoms advance from muscle weakness in the arms and legs, to the muscles of speech, swallowing, and breathing, to total paralysis and death; also known as Lou Gehrig disease
  86. cerebral palsy (CP)
    condition of motor dysfunction caused by damage to the cerebrum during development or injury at birth; characterized by partial paralysis and lack of muscle coordination
  87. cerebrovascular disease
    disorder resulting from a change within one or more blood vessels of the brain
  88. cerebral arteriosclerosis
    hardening of the arteries of the brain
  89. cerebral atherosclerosis
    condition of lipid (fat) buildup within the blood vessels of the brain
  90. cerebral aneurysm
    dilation of a blood vessel in the brain
  91. cerebral thrombosis
    presence of a stationary clot in a blood vessel of the brain
  92. cerebral embolism
    obstruction of a blood vessel in the brain by an embolus transported through the circulation
  93. cerebrovascular accident (CVA)/ stroke
    damage to the brain caused by cerebrovascular disease, such as occlusion of a blood vessel by a thrombus or embolus (ischemic stroke) or intracranial hemorrhage after rupture of an aneurysm (hemorrhagic stroke)
  94. transient ischemic attack (TIA)
    brief episode of loss of blood flow to the brain, usually caused by partial occlusion that results in temporary neruologic deficit (impairment); often precedes a CVA
  95. encephalitis
    inflammation of the brain
  96. epilepsy
    disorder affecting the central nervous system; characterized by recurrent seizures
  97. tonic-clonic seizure
    stiffening-jerking; a major motor seizure involving all muscle groups; previously termed grand mal (big bad) seizure
  98. absence seizure
    seizure involving a brief loss of consciousness w/out motor involvement; previously termed petit mal (little bad) seizure
  99. partial seizure
    seizure involving only limited areas of the brain with localized symptoms
  100. glioma
    tumor of glial cells graded according to degree of malignancy
  101. herniated disk or disc
    protrustion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
  102. herpes zoster
    viral disease affecting the peripheral nerves, characterized by painful blisters that spread over the skin following the affected nerves, usually unilateral; also known as shingles
  103. Huntington chorea/ Huntington disease (HD)
    hereditary disease fo the central nervous system characterized by bizarre, involuntary body movements and progressive dementia
  104. hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain as a result of developmental anomalies, infection, injury, or tumor
  105. meningioma
    benign tumor of the coverings of the brain (the meninges)
  106. meningitis
    inflammation of the meninges
  107. migraine headache
    paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of mostly unillateral headache, often accompanied by disordered vision, nausea, or vomiting, lasting hours or days and caused by dilation of arteries
  108. multiple sclerosis (MS)
    disease of the central nervous system characterized by the demyelination (deterioration of the myelin sheath) of nerve fibers, with episodes of neurologic dysfunction (exacerbation) followed by recovery (remission)
  109. myasthenia gravis
    autoimmune disorder that affects the neuromuscular junction, causing a progressive decrease in muscle strength; activity resumes and strength returns after a period of rest
  110. myelitis
    inflammation of the spinal cord
  111. narcolepsy
    sleep disorder characterized by a sudden, uncontrollable need to sleep, attacks of paralysis (cataplexy), and dreams intruding while awake (hypnagogic hallucinations)
  112. neural tube defects
    congenital deformities of the brain and spinal cord caused by incomplete development of the neural tube, the embryonic structure that forms the nervous system
  113. anencephaly
    defect in closure of the cephalic portion of the neural tube that results in incomplete development of the brain and bones of the skull; the most drastic neural tube defect usually results in a stillbirth
  114. spina bifida
    defect in development of the spinal column characterized by the absence of the vertebral arches, often resulting in pouching of the meninges (meningocele) or of the meninges and spinal cord (meningomyelocele); considered to be the most common neural tube defect.
  115. parkinson disease
    condition of slowly progressive degeneration in an area of the brainstem (substantia nigra) resulting in a decrease of dopamine (a chemical neurotransmitter necessary for proper movement); characterized by tremor; rigidity of muscles, and slow movements (bradykinesia); usually occurs later in life
  116. plegia
    paralysis
  117. hemiplegia
    paralysis on one side of the body
  118. paraplegia
    paralysis from the waist down
  119. quadriplegia
    paralysis of all four limbs
  120. poliomyelitis
    inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord caused by a virus, often resulting in spinal and muscle deformity and paralysis
  121. polyneuritis
    inflammation involving two or more nerves, often caused by a nutritional deficiency, such as lack of thiamine
  122. sleep apnea
    periods of breathing cessation (10 secs or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
  123. electrodiagnostic procedures
    diagnostic procedures used to evaluate the function of the nervous system by recording the electrical signals produced in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
  124. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    record of the minute electrical impulses of the brain; used to identify neurologic conditions that affect brain function and level of consciousness
  125. evoked potentials
    record of minute electrical potentials (waves) that are extracted from ongoing EEG activity to diagnose auditory, visual, and sensory pathway disorders; also used to monitor the neurologic function of patients during surgery.
  126. polysomnography (PSG)
    recording of various aspects of sleep to diagnose sleep disorders
  127. lumbar puncture (LP)
    introduction of a specialized needle into the spine in the lumbar region for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes, such as to obtain CSF for testing; also called spinal tap.
  128. magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)
    nonionizing imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures (especially soft tissue), such as the tissues of the brain and spinal cord
  129. magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
    magnetic resonance imaging of blood vessels to detect pathologic conditions, such as thrombosis and atherosclerosis
  130. intracranial MRA
    magnetic resonance image of the head to visualize the vessels of the circle of Willis (common site of cerebral aneurysm, stenosis, or occlusion)
  131. extracranial MRa
    magnetic resonance image of the neck to visualize the carotid artery
  132. nuclear medicine imaging
    radionuclide organ imaging
  133. single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain scan
    scan combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of the brain after the administration of radioactive isotopes
  134. positron-emission tomography (PET)
    technique combining nuclear medicine and computed tomography to produce images of brain anatomy and corresponding physiology; used to study stroke, Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, metabolic brain disorders, chemistry of nerve transmissions in the brain, and so on; provides greater accuracy than SPECT, but is used less often b/c of cost and the limited availability of the radioisotopes.
  135. radiography
    x-ray imaging
  136. cerebral angiogram
    x-ray of blood vessels in the brain after intracarotid injection of contrast medium
  137. computed tomography (CT) of the head
    computed tomographic images fo the head used to visualize abnormalities, such as brain tumors and malformations
  138. myelogram
    x-ray of the spinal cord obtained after intraspinal injection of contrast medium
  139. reflex testing
    test performed to observe the body's response to a stimulus
  140. deep tendon reflexes (DTR)
    involuntary muscle contraction after percussion at a tendon indicating function; positive findings are either no reflex response or an exaggerated response to stimulus; numbers are often used to record responses
  141. Babinski sign
    pathologic response to stimulation of the plantar surface of the foot; a positive sign is indicated when the toes dorsiflex (curl upward)
  142. transcranial Doppler sonogram
    image made by sending ultrasound beams through the skull to assess blood flow in intracranial vessels; used in the diagnosis and management of stroke and head trauma
  143. carotid endarterectomy
    incision of coring of the lining of the carotid artery to clear a blockage caused by the buildup of atherosclerotic plaque or a clot; an open procedure used to treat patients who are at risk for stroke
  144. craniectomy
    excision of part of the skull to approach the brain
  145. craniotomy
    incision into the skull to approach the brain
  146. diskectomy discectomy
    removal of a herniated disk; often done percutaneously
  147. endovascular neurosurgery/ interventional neuroradiology
    minimally invasive techniques for diagnosis and treatment of disorders within the blood vessels of the neck, brain, and spinal cord using specialized catheters inserted percutaneously into the femoral artery and guided by angiographic imaging to the treatment site; performed in a specialized angiographic laboratory by interventional neuroradiologists
  148. laminectomy/ vertebral lamina
    • excision of one or more laminae of the vertebrae to approach the spinal cord.
    • flattened posterior portion of the vertebral arch
  149. microsurgery
    use of a microscope to dissect minute structures during surgery
  150. neuroplasty
    surgical repair of a nerve
  151. spondylosyndesis
    spinal fusion
  152. chemotherapy
    treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents to destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
  153. radiation therapy
    treatment of neoplastic disease using ionizing radiation to impede the proliferation of malignant cells
  154. stereotactic or stereotaxic radiosurgery
    radiation treatment to inactive malignant lesions using multiple, precise external radiation beams focused on a target with the aid of stereotactic frame and imaging such as CT, MRI or angiography; used to treat inoperable brain tumors and other lesions
  155. stereotactic or stereotaxic frame
    mechanical device used to localize a point in space, targeting a precise site
  156. analgesic
    agent that relieves pain
  157. anticonvulsant
    agent that prevents or lessens convulsion
  158. hypnotic
    agent that induces sleep
  159. affect
    emotional feeling or mood
  160. flat affect
    significantly dulled emotional tone or outward reaction
  161. apathy
    a lack of interest or display of emotion
  162. catatonia
    a state of unresponsiveness to one's outside environment, usually including muscle rigidity, staring, and inability to communicate
  163. delusion
    a persistent belief that has no basis in reality
  164. grandiose delusion
    a person's false belief that he or she possesses great wealth, intelligence, or power
  165. persecutory delusion
    a person's false belief that someone is plotting against him or her with the intent to harm
  166. dysphoria
    a restless, dissatisfied mood
  167. euphoria
    an exaggerated, unfounded feeling of well-being
  168. hallucination
    a false perception of the senses for which there is no reality; most commonly hearing or seeing things
  169. ideation
    the formation of thoughts or ideas, such as suicidal ideation
  170. mania
    state of abnormal elation and increased activity
  171. neurosis
    a psychologic condition in which anxiety is prominent
  172. psychosis
    a mental condition characterized by distortion of reality resulting in the inability to communicated or function within one's environment
  173. thought disorder
    thougth that lacks clear processing of logical direction.
  174. major depression, major depressive illness, clinical depression, major affective disorder, unipolar disorder
    a disorder causing periodic disturbances in mood that affect concentration, sleep, activity, appetite, and social behavior; characterized by feelings of worthlessnes,s fatigue, and loss of interest
  175. dysthymia
    a milder affective disorder characterized by chronic depression
  176. manic depression, bipolar disorder (BD)
    an affective disorder characterized by a mood swings of mania and depression (extreme up and down states)
  177. seasonal affective disorder(SAD)
    an affective disorder marked by episodes of depression that most often occur during the fall and winter and that remit in the spring
  178. dyslexia
    a developmental disability characterized by difficulty understanding written or spoken words, sentences, or paragraphs that affects reading, spelling, and self-expression
  179. attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    a dysfunction characterized by consistent hyperactivity, distractibility, and lack of control over impulses, which interferes with ability to function normally at school, home, or work
  180. mental retardation
    a condition of subaverage intelligence characterized by an IQ of 70 or less, resulting in the inability to adapt to normal social activities
  181. anorexia nervosa
    a severe disturbance in eating behavior caused by abnormal perceptions about one's body weight, as evidenced by an overwhelming fear of becoming fat that results in a refusal to eat and body weight well below normal
  182. bulimia nervosa
    an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by efforts to limit digestion though induced vomiting, use of laxitives, or excessive exercise
  183. substance abuse disorders
    mental disorders resulting from abuse of substances such as drugs, alcohol, or other toxins, causing personal and social dysfunction; identified by the abused substance, such as alcohol abuse, amphetamine abuse, opioid (narcotic) abuse, and polysubstance abuse.
  184. schizophrenia
    a disease of brain chemistry causing a distorted cognitive and emotional perception of one's environment; symptoms include disortions of normal function (such as disorgazied thought, delusions, hallucinations, and catatonic behavior), flat affect, apathy, and withdrawal from reality
  185. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
    electrical shock applied to the brain to induce convulsions; used to treat patients with severe depression
  186. light therapy
    use of specialized illuminating light boxes and visors to treat seasonal affective disorder
  187. psychotherapy
    treatment of psychiatric disorders using verbal and nonverbal interaction with patients, individually or in a group, employing specific actions and techniques
  188. behavioral therapy
    treatment to decrease or stop unwanted behavior
  189. cognitive therapy
    treatment to change unwanted patterns of thinking
  190. psychotropic drugs
    medications used to treat mental illnesses
  191. antianxiety agents/ anxiolytic agents
    drugs used to reduce anxiety
  192. antidepressant
    agent that counteracts depression
  193. neuroleptic agents
    drugs used to treat psychosis, especially schizophrenia
  194. sedative
    agent that has a calming effect of quiets nervousness
  195. ALS
    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  196. ADHD
    attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
  197. ANS
    autonomic nervous system
  198. BD
    bipolar disorder
  199. CNS
    central nervous system
  200. CP
    cerebral palsy
  201. CSF
    cerebrospinal fluid
  202. CT
    computed tomography
  203. CVA
    cerebrovascular accident
  204. DTR
    deep tendon reflexes
  205. ECT
    electroconvulsive therapy
  206. EEG
    electroencephalogram
  207. GAD
    generalized anxiety disorder
  208. HD
    Huntington disease
  209. LP
    lumbar puncture
  210. MRA
    magnetic resonance anngiography
  211. MRI
    magnetic resonance imaging
  212. MS
    multiple sclerosis
  213. NCV
    nerve conduction velocity
  214. OCD
    obsessive-compulsive disorder
  215. PET
    positron-emission tomography
  216. PNS
    peripheral nervous system
  217. PSG
    polysomnography
  218. PTSD
    posttraumatic stress disorder
  219. SAD
    seasonal affective disorder
  220. SPECT
    single-photon emission computed tomography
  221. TIA
    transient ischemic attack
  222. generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    the most common anxiety disorder; characterized by chronic , excessive, uncontrollable worry about everyday problems, affects the ability to relax or concentrate, but does not usually interfere with social interactions or employment; physical symptoms include muscle tension, trembling, twitching, fatigue, headaches, nausea, and insomnia
  223. panic disorder
    a disorder of sudden, recurrent attacks of intense feelings, including physical symptoms that mimic a heart attack with a general sense of loss of control or feeling that death is imminent; often progresses to agoraphobia
  224. phobia
    exaggerated fear of a specific object or circumstance that causes anxiety an dpanic; named for the object or circumstance, such as agoraphobia, claustrophobia, and acrophobia
  225. posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    a condition resulting from an extremely traumatic experience, injury, or illness that leaves the sufferere with persistent thoughts and memories or the ordeal; symptoms include feelings of fear, detachment, exaggerated startle response, restlessness, nightmares, and avoidance of anything or anyone who triggers the painful recollections
  226. obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
    an anxiety disorder featuring unwanted, senseless obsessions accompanied by repeated compulsions; can interfere with all aspects of a person's daily life
  227. hypochondriasis
    a preoccupation with thoughts of disease and concern that one is suffering from a serious condition of persists despite medical reassurance to the contrary
  228. autism
    a develpomental disability, commonly appearing during the fist three years of life, resulting from a neurologic disorder affecting brain function, as evidenced by difficulties with verbal and nonverbal communication and an inability to relate to anything beyond oneself in social interactions

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