Endocrine Hormones

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Author:
kshoultz44
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80673
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Endocrine Hormones
Updated:
2011-04-19 15:21:01
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Anatomy
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Hormones of the Endocrine system; location, target, and effect
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  1. ADH: Antidiuretic Hormone
    Located in the Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of pituitary gland) ; Pars Nervosa (neural lobe)

    Targets the kidneys and is responsible for the reabsorption of water; elevation of blood volume and pressure
  2. Ocytocin
    Located in the Neurohypophysis (posterior lobe of pituitary gland) ; Pars Nervosa (neural lobe)

    Targets the uterus, mammary glands of females and is responsible for labor contractions and milk ejection.

    Targets the ductus deferens and prostate gland of males and is responsible for contractions of ductus deferens and prostrate gland; ejection of secretions
  3. TSH: Thyroid-stimulating hormone
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitary gland) Pars distalis (distal part of anterior lobe)

    Targets the thyroid gland and is responsible for the secretion of thyroid hormones. Secreted by cells called thyrotropes.
  4. ACTH: Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitarty gland) Pars distalis (distal part of anterior lobe)

    Targets the suprarenal cortex (zona fasciculata) and is responsible for glucocorticoid secretion that affect glucose metabolism. Secreted by cells called corticotropes.
  5. FSH: Follicle-stimulating hormone
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitarty gland) Pars distalis (distal part of anterior lobe)

    • Targets follicle cells of ovaries in females and is responsible for estrogen secretion and follicle development.
    • Targets nurse cells of testes in males and is responsible for the stimulation of sperm maturation.
    • Both secreted by cells called gonadotropins.
  6. LH: Luteinizing Hormone
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitarty gland) Pars distalis (distal part of anterior lobe)

    • Targets follicle cells of ovaries in females and is responsible for ovulation, formation of corpus luteum, and progesterone secretion (important to prepare body for pregnancy).
    • Targets interstitial cells of testes in males and is responsible for testosterone secretion.
    • Both secreted by cells called gonadotropins.
  7. PRL: Prolactin
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitarty gland) Pars distalis (distal part of anterior lobe)

    Targets mammary glands in females and is responsible for the the production of milk. Secreted by cells called lactotropes.
  8. GH: Growth Hormone
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitarty gland) Pars distalis (distal part of anterior lobe)

    Targets all cells and is responsible for growth, protein synthesis, lipid mobilization and catabolism. Secreted by cells called somatotropes.
  9. MSH: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
    Located in the Adenohypophysis (anterior lobe of pituitarty gland) ONLY hormone released by the Pars Intermedia (not active in normal adults)

    Targets melanocytes and is responsible for increased melanin synthesis in the epidermis during fetal development, young children, pregnant women, and in some disease states. Secreted by cells called corticotropes (ATCH cells).
  10. T4: Thyroxine
    Located in the Thyroid and produced by T thyrocytes.

    Targets most cells and is responsible for an increase in energy utilization, oxygen consumption, growth, and development.
  11. T3: Triiodothyronine
    Located in the Thyroid and produced by T thyrocytes.

    Targets most cells and is responsible for an increase in energy utilization, oxygen consumption, growth, and development.
  12. CT: Calcitonin
    Located in the Thyroid and produced by C thyrocytes.

    Targets bones and kidneys and is responsible for the decrease in calcium ion concentrations in body fluids; uncertain significance in healthy nonpregnant adults. Especially important during childhood.
  13. PTH: Parathyroid Hormone
    Located in the Parathyroid and produced by parathyroid cells.

    Targets bones and kidneys and is responsible for the increase of calcium ion concentrations in body fluids and increases bone mass.
  14. Thymus
    Relatively large in newborn infants and young children. Reaches maximum size just before puberty.
  15. Thymosins
    Located in the thymus.

    Targets lymphocytes and is responsible for the maturation and functional competence of the immune system.
  16. Parathyroid cells (principal cells)
    Glandular cells that produce the hormone PTH.
  17. Oxyphil cells and Transmitted cells
    Are likely immature or inactive principal cells.
  18. Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
    Located in the Medulla of the Suprarenal Gland.

    Targets most cells and is responsible for the increased cardiac activity; blood pressure, glycogen breakdown, blood glucose; release of lipids by adipose tissue.

    Secretes roughly three times more epinephrine than norepinephrine.
  19. Renin
    Produced by the kidneys. (enzyme)
  20. EPO: Erythropoietin
    Peptide hormone in the kidneys. Stimulates red blood cell production by the bone marrow.
  21. Calcitriol
    Steroid hormone produced by the kidneys in response to the presence of the parathyroid hormone: PTH. Best-known function is the stimulation of calcium and phosphate ion absorption along the digestive tract.
  22. ANP: Atrial Natriuretic Peptide
    BNP: Brain Natriuretic Peptide
    Released by cardiac muscles in the heart. Both suppress the release of ADH and aldosterone and stimulate water and sodium ion loss at the kidneys.
  23. Glucagon
    Produced by the Alpha cells in the Pancreas.

    Targets liver and adipose tissue and is responsible for mobilization of lipid reserves; glucose synthesis and glycogen breakdown in liver; elevation of blood glucose concentrations.
  24. Insulin
    Produced by Beta cells in the Pancreas.

    Targets all cells except those of the brain, kidneys, digestive tract epithelium, and red blood cells and is responsible for the facilitation of uptake glucose by cells; stimulation of lipid and glycogen formation and storage; decrease in blood glucose concentrations.
  25. Somatostatin
    Produced by Delta cells in Pancreas.
  26. PP: Pancreatic Polypeptide
    Produced by F cells in Pancreas.
  27. Androgen
    Located in the testes and produced by interstitial cells.

    Targets most cells and is responsible for the support of functional maturation of sperm; protein synthesis in skeletal muscles; male secondary sex characteristics and associated behaviors.
  28. Testosterone
    The most important androgen.
  29. Inhibin
    Located in the testes and is produced by nurse cells and in the ovaries and produced by follicular cells.

    Targets anterior lobe of the pituitary gland and is responsible for inhibiting the secretion of FSH.
  30. Estrogen
    Located in the ovaries and produced by follicular cells.

    Targets most cells and is responsible for supporting follicle maturation; female secondary sex characteristics and associated behaviors.
  31. Progestin
    Located in the ovaries and produced by the corpus luteum.

    Targets the uterus and mammary glands and is responsible for preparing the uterus for implantation and preparing the mammary glands for secretary functions.
  32. Melatonin
    Located in the Pineal Gland and produced by pinealocytes.

    Responsible for day and night cycles.
  33. Releasing Hormones
    Located in the hypothalamus.

    Stimulate production of one or more hormones at the adenohypophysis.
  34. Inhibiting Hormones
    Located in the hypothalamus.

    Prevent synthesis and secretions of specific pituitary hormones.

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