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2011-04-19 16:36:51

Triumph And Tragedy: America At The Turn Of The Century
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  1. Demographic shifts
    • Growth of Sunbelt and urban areas – mild climate, low tax rates, high rates of econ growth, +Christians and repubs.
    • Women and the workforce – especially white collar jobs.
    • Decline of the "traditional family unit" – fewer children living w/ 2 parents, +divorce, +single parents.
    • Black Americans and poverty - +crime/violence, few in colleges, many illiterate.
  2. The new immigrants
    • Changes in America's ethnic mix – more foreigners than ever before.
    • Origins of immigrants – Hispanics, af, asian, latino, am Indian.
    • Immigrants and American society – US allowed more than other countries, maj of immigrants not from euro. Mex = largest minority.
  3. The computer revolution
    • An overview of the computer revolution – a programmable machine to replace mental tasks.
    • Microchip ’71 and "personal computer" ’75 development – Ed Roberts = personal computer, not particularly useful yet, but sparked interest in Bill Gates.
    • Computers and globalization – email allowed for instantaneous communication
    • Effects – globalization of econ, increasing productivity in workplace
  4. Cultural conservatives
    • More ideological and partisan – young conservative activists largely from Sunbelt areas = new maj force in nat’l affairs.
    • Attacks on liberalism – they hated social liberalism, the disappearance of basic forms of decency/ propriety, and affirmative action programs.
    • The Religious Right
  5. The Religious Right Christian Coalition –
    • Christian Coalition – organized by Pat Robertson to replace Jerry Falwell’s Moral Maj as the main org of the resurgent religious right.
    • Political effect – they used repub party to promote school prayer, trad fam values, anti-abortion/gay rights, downsize/delimit gov. very prominent in ‘90s.
  6. Decline in Bush's popularity
    • Foreign affairs – aftermath of desert storm, Saddam Hussein still in charge of Iraq, end of USSR, realization that containment = fail.
    • Economic recession – many unemployed.
    • Broke "No new taxes" pledge – increased fed revenue, but lost Bush pub support.
    • Pat Buchanan's challenge – claimed to be a crusader for mid am rev that would halt illegal immigration and liberal permissiveness.
    • Bush’s real prob – not being able to jump-start the econ.
  7. Clinton's economic program
    • Deficit-reduction package barely passed - ↑taxes for large corporations, +human capital/pub works programs like transp, utilities, edu, skills, health, welfare, ect.
    • Approval of NAFTA – made am the largest free-trade area in the world.
  8. Health-care reform
    • Clinton's plan – universal med insurance would reduce the overall costs of health care.
    • Vested interests opposed – from pharmaceutical and insurance industries.
    • Result – Dems dropped fight for universal medical coverage
  9. Democrats resented Clinton's "waffling"
    dems felt betrayed when Clinton joined conservatives in trying to bring back affirmative-action plans to help racial discrim patterns in hiring and awarding of gov contracts.
  10. Republicans' "Contract with America"
    • Rise of Newton Leroy Gingrich – had helped w/ Christian coalition. He claimed liberalism/dem party was dead/dying. Need repub dominance to dismantle “welfare state.”
    • 10pt contract – anti-big gov w/ less reg and env conservation, term limits for congressmen, line-item veto for pres, welfare reform, and a balanced budget amendment.
    • "Gingrich revolution" fizzled out – he was too ambitious/aggressive.
  11. Legislative breakthrough –
    Legislative breakthrough – ↑minimum wage, broading pub access to welfare-reform.

    • Welfare reform – ended fed govs open-ended guarantee of aid to poor.
    • Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of ’96 – turned over maj fed welfare programs to states and gave states grants to fund them. Time limit on welfare benefits.
  12. The "new economy"
    • centered on high-flying computer, software, telecommunications, and internet firms.
    • Factors behind the economic boom – the peace dividend, end of cold war enabled US gov to reduce defense spending. Clinton admin cut taxes and reduced overall fed spending. Growth in worker productivity, new tech/production processes allowed for greater efficiency.
  13. Adarand Constructors v. Pena ’95
    shift in stance on minorities and affirmative action
  14. Hopwood v. Texas
    can’t use race to achieve a diverse student body in colleges.
  15. Scandals Whitewater
    Clinton may have been involved in an investment fraud in AK.
  16. Scandals
    The Lewinsky affair
    – he had an affair with white house intern Monica Lewinsky.
  17. Clinton's good and bad qualities
    he was political astute, charismatic, well-informed, but was self-indulgent.
  18. Haiti
    most successful departure in foreign policy for the Clinton admin. Haiti had a dem election.
  19. The Middle East
    – an agreement provided for restoration of Palestinian self-rule in Gaza strip and Jericho in exchange for land for peace provided in UN Security Council resolutions.
  20. The Balkans
    • Bosnia – split into Muslim-Croat federation and Bosnian-Serb republic.
    • Kosovo – Yugoslav pres Milosevic decided to reassert Serbian control over ground considered sacred byy Christian Serbs. NATO helped work out peace agreements.
  21. Globalization
  22. US econ dependent on others, time-space compression, foreign trade = central to am prosperity and politics. Result: global concerns exercise overwhelming influence on domestic and foreign policies.
  23. . George W. Bush's presidency
    • Economic conditions and policies – 2001 recession, followed by tax cuts.
    • No Child Left Behind – set new learning standards ensuring all students ere proficient at reading and math.
    • Exploiting the environment – he allowed more logging in nat’l forests, opened up more fed land, took back restrictions on econ devl imposed by env regs.
  24. September 11, 2001
    • The hijackings – a commercial airliner was hijacked by Islamic terrorists.
    • Death toll – 266 on the planes, 2,600 in world trade center.
    • American and global reaction - +nat’lism
    • al Qaeda and the Taliban – well-financed worldwide network of Islamic extremists led by Osama bin laden. Taliban opposed alliance.
  25. War on terrorism
    • Bush's new sense of purpose – forged a coalition to strike at terrorism worldwide.
    • Attack on Afghanistan – demanded Afghanistan Taliban gov surrender the terrorists or risk mil attack.
  26. Terrorism at home
    • Office of Homeland Security – to address the threat and help restore pub confidence.
    • Airport security – Transportation security admin to screen airline passengers.
    • Patriot Act – gave gov agencies the right to eavesdrop on private conversations b/w prisoners and their lawyers. Allowed suspected terrorists to be tried in secret mil courts.
  27. Second Gulf War (Iraq War)
    • Rationale for attack on Saddam Hussein – Preemptive military action defend US against threat posed by Iraq’s supposed possession of bio chem weapons.
    • Operation Iraqi Freedom – involved massive bombing campaign & fast-moving invasion of Iraq’s bases in Kuwait.
    • Military results – captured Baghdad, Hussein’s regime collapsed.
    • Challenges of Iraq reconstruction – religious feuds and ethnic tensions still existed.
    • Renewed insurgency – still many suicide bombers and terrorist attacks.
    • No weapons of mass destruction – that was the whole reason they had invaded Iraq.
    • Other problems – Increasing human and financial costs of occupation
  28. The Surge in Iraq
    • Iraq Study Group – recommended that US step up the training of Iraqi troops and withdraw all US combat forces from Iraq by spring ’08.
    • Bush instead increases troop levels – most dems opposed and called for an exit strategy.
    • The surge's partial success – it had succeeded, but was expensive, many lives lost, and it generated widespread criticism.
  29. Economic calamity
    • The bursting of the housing bubble – in fall 2007
    • Credit contraction and recession – banks stop landing, companies stopped producing.
    • Stock market prices collapse – due to the sudden concentration of consumer credit, corporate spending and consumer purchases.
    • Bush bails out the banks – troubled asset relief program - $70bil to banks