Kinesiology Navigating the Body.txt

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allie.carley
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807
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Kinesiology Navigating the Body.txt
Updated:
2009-11-06 13:08:24
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massage therapy
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chapter one kinesiology trail guide to the body
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  1. Anatomical Position
    • Standing erect with palms facing forward
    • In this position it can be divided into three imaginary planes.
  2. Sagittal Plane
    • Divides the body into left and right halves
    • Medial and lateral correlate to this plane
    • The actions of flexion and extension occur along this plane
  3. Frontal (Coronal) Plane
    • Divides the body into front and back portions
    • Anterior and posterior correlate to this plane
    • The actions of adduction and abduction occur along this plane
  4. Transverse Plane
    • Divides the body into upper and lower portion
    • Superior and inferior correlate to this plane
    • The action of rotation occurs along this plane
  5. Superior
    • Refers to a structure closer to the head
    • Above
    • When referring to structures on the trunk it would be cranial.
  6. Inferior
    • Refers to a structure closer to the feet
    • Below
    • When referring to structures on the truck it would be caudal.
  7. Posterior
    Further toward the back of the body
  8. Anterior
    Further toward the front of the body
  9. Medial
    Closer to the midline of the body
  10. Lateral
    Further away from the midline of the body
  11. Distal
    A structure that is further away from the trunk or the body's midline only: when referring to arms or legs.
  12. Proximal
    A structure that is closer to the trunk: only when referring to arms or legs.
  13. Superficial
    Closer to the body's surface
  14. Deep
    Deeper in the body
  15. Extension
    • Movement that straightens or opens a joint
    • Ex: When you lean back
  16. Flexion
    • Movement that bends a joint or brings the bones closer together
    • Ex: Bending your fingers to play piano
  17. Adduction
    • Brings a limb medially toward the body's midline (adding to the body)
    • Ex: Bringing your arms to your sides
  18. Abduction
    • Moves a limb laterally away from the midline (abduct or carry away)
    • Ex: Raising your arms up and away from the body
  19. Medial Rotation (Internal Rotation)
    • The limb towards in toward the middle
    • Ex: While playing hacky sack it is kicking your foot (while behind you) outwards and away from the body
  20. Lateral Rotation (External Rotation)
    • The limb swings away from the midline
    • Ex: playing hacky sack it is kicking your foot (while behind you) inwards behind the other leg
  21. Rotation
    • Pertains only to the axial skeleton, specifically the head and vertebral column
    • Ex: When you look both ways before crossing the street
  22. Circumduction
    • A combination of flexion, extension, adduction, and abduction
    • Possible only at the shoulder and hip joints
    • Ex: Swimming the backstroke requires this at the shoulder joint
  23. Lateral Flexion
    • Occurs only at the axial skeleton when the head or vertebral column bend laterally to the side
    • Ex: Pulling head down toward shoulder
  24. Supination
    • Occurs when the radius and ulna lie parallel to one another (carrying a bowl of soup)
    • Ex: When you reach to grab a doorknob
  25. Pronation
    • Takes place when the radius crosses over the ulna, turning the palm down (prone to spill the soup)
    • Ex: The position you are in when you have turned the doorknob
  26. Opposition
    • Occurs when the thumb pad crosses the palm toward the last finger
    • Ex: When pinkie and thumb touch each other
  27. Inversion
    • Occurs as a combination of movements of several joins of the feet
    • Elevates the foot's medial side and brings the sole of the foot medially (turn in)
    • Ex: Touching the bottoms of your feet together
  28. Eversion
    • Occurs as a combination of movements of several joins of the feet
    • Elevates the foot's lateral side and moves the sole laterally (turn out)
    • Ex: What your feet do when you sit like a kid with no bones...
  29. Plantar Flexion
    • Only refers to movement at the ankle
    • Performed by moving the ankle to point your foot into the earth
    • Ex: Pushing on the acceleration in a car
  30. Dorsiflexion
    • Only refers to movement at the ankle
    • Performed by moving the ankle up toward your head
    • Ex: Taking your foot off the gas peddle
  31. Protraction
    • Pertains to the scapula, clavicle, head, and jaw
    • Occurs when one of these structures moves anteriorly (protrude)
    • Ex: When you try and look like a bird my moving your head outward
  32. Retraction
    • Pertains to the scapula, clavicle, head, and jaw
    • Movement of one of these structures posteriorly (retreat)
    • Ex: A very big overbite
  33. Elevation
    • Movement of the scapula and jaw
    • Movement superiorly
    • Ex: Closing your mouth
  34. Depression
    • Movement of the scapula and jaw
    • Movement inferiorly
    • Ex: Opening your mouth
  35. Deviation
    Wander from the usual course
  36. Skull
    Bone that covers your brain
  37. Mandible
    Jaw bone
  38. Cervical vertebra
    Bones in your neck
  39. Clavicle
    Collar bone
  40. Sternum
    Bone of the chest piece
  41. Humerus
    Upper arm bone
  42. Ulna
    • Pinkie side arm bone
    • Thicker of the two
  43. Radius
    • Thumb side arm bone
    • Thinner of the two
  44. Carpals
    Wrist bones
  45. Metacarpals
    Hand bones
  46. Phalanges
    Fingers and toes bones
  47. Scapula
    Shoulder blade
  48. Ribs
    Yum!
  49. Lumbar vertebra
    Lower back bones
  50. Pelvis
    Butt bone
  51. Sacrum
    Mid-butt bone
  52. Coccyx
    Bottom of the butt bone
  53. Femur
    Upper leg bone
  54. Patella
    Knee bone
  55. Tibia
    Big, lower leg bone
  56. Fibula
    Little, lower leg bone
  57. Tarsals
    Bones in the foot toward the ankle
  58. Metatarsals
    Foot bones
  59. Thoracic Vertebra
    Bones in your upper back
  60. Talus
    Ankle bone
  61. Calcaneus
    Heel bone
  62. Fibrous Joints
    Immovable joints
  63. Cartilaginous Joints
    Slightly moveable joints
  64. Synovial Joints
    • Moveable
    • Contain a joint cavity
    • Six different types
  65. Ball-and-Socket Joint
    A spherical surface of one bone fits into the dish-shaped depression of another bone
  66. Ellipsoid Joint
    Consists of the oval-shaped end of one bone articulating with the elliptical basin of another bone
  67. Hinge Joint
    Allows only flexion and extension, similar to the movements of a door hinge
  68. Saddle Joint
    A modified ellipsoid joint composed of convex and concave articulating surfaces � like two saddles
  69. Gliding Joint
    Usually between two flat surfaces and allows the least amount of movement of all synovial joints.
  70. Pivot Joint
    Designed to allow one bone to rotate around the surface of another bone
  71. The Cardiovascular System
    • Arteries and veins are the blood vessels
    • Form an amazing network that transports blood from the heart, brings it to the body�s tissues, and then carries it back to the heart
  72. The Nervous System
    Brain and spinal cord make up the central part while the remaining aspects form the peripheral
  73. The Lymphatic System
    Perform many functions throughout the body such as draining the interstitial fluid which escapes from capillaries and transporting it back to the heart

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