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chemically unrelated organic substances that are grouped together because each is essential in the diet in minute amounts and is required for specific metabolic reactions.
Vitamins do not provide energy. B vitamin helps the body use what for fuel?
Choline function is?
synthesis of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and lecithin (phospholipid).
Choline is conditionly required because?
you can make it in your body but not going to make enough.
B Vitamins function as what?
- coenzyme in metabolism
- do not produce any energy important for energy production.
Functions of Thiamin?
- part of the coenzyme Thiamin pyrophosphate. (involved in energy metabolism)
- on membranes of nerve cells. (relies on thiamin for function)
Deficiency of Thiamin?
- damage to nervous system, heart, & other muscles.
- Seen when white rice is a staple food.
Thiamin Toxicity is?
in alcoholics 4:5 are deficiant in thiamin b/c causes discreation of thiamin.
For water soluble vitamins boiling =
- decrease water soluble vitamins
- this case heat actually destroys it.
FAD can accept and donate H's during?
FADH2 is involved in how many steps?
Riboflavin deficiency are?
inflammation of mouth, skin, and eyelids; sensitivity to light.
not going to see a lot of.
Niacin functions are?
part of coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (involved w/ energy metabolism) and NADP
Deficiency of Niacin? 4 D's
- 1. Diarria
- 2. Dermatits
- 3. demantia
- 4. death
when corn was staple food would see this happening.
- not going to see unless supplimenting.
- capillaries will dialate and cause a tingle sensation that can be painful.
- part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis.
- involved with TCA cycle
- going towards storeage and breaking down.
Deficiency of Biotin?
- Binds biotin
- -in raw eggs
- rare to see
Pantothenic Acid functions are?
- involved in fatty acid bio-synthises and also F.A. degradation
- component of coenzyme A
- 70 different enzymes need this coenzyme (CoA or ACP)
Pyridoxal phosphate (vit. B6) functions are?
- part of coenzyme PLP and PMP?
- -amino acid metabolism
- -serotonin synthesis
- -Heme synthesis
Serotonin synthesis is?
PLP involved w/ making serotonin from tryptoptian involved w/ appetie
- sleep regulation
- neuro transmitter
- sinsory perception (mood)
Deficiency of Pyridoxal Phosphate (vit B6)
- Depression and confusion
- -neurotransmitter not made
- microcytic anemia
- -can't make hemengloben
- unable to carry sufficiante amount of o2 to blood.
Vit. B6 toxicity is?
- nerves damage
- can get to this level
- associated w/ neurological damage
Folate (folic Acid) functions are?
- Part of coenzyme THF
- the movement of single C's important for DNA synthesis
- purine synthesis
- also involved w/ B12
Neural tube defects are?
- folate supplementation decreases spinal bifida
- started fortifying grains in 1996
- fortification has worked and decreased birth defects.
Spinal Bifida is?
- imcumplet closing at spinal cord -paralysis, club feet, dislocated hip, curvurture of spin.
- happens durring pregnancy
Folate and cardiovascular disease is?
- higher homocysteine levels in blood increase cardio vascular disease
- damage vascular cells
decrease folate =
Folate Deficiency are?
Megaloblastic Anemia is?
- you dont synthasise DNA properly in red blood cells
- RBC's get large but dont divide
- keep swelling and cant make new ones
Imature RBC's dont carry what?
Unique aspects of Vit. B12 are?
- absorbed in small intestin
- most deficiencies due to this system not working right
- can occur in older age
Functions of Vit. B12 are?
- Folate metabolism
- normal function as nerve cells
Folate metabolism is required to?
Convert folate coenzymes to active forms.
Normal function as nerve cells do what?
maintain the myelin sheath that insalates nerve fibers from each other for proper function.
a Decrease in B12 =
patchy destraction of myelin sheath
can lead to creeping paralysis or death
Vit. B12 deficincy are?
Pernicious anemia is?
- 1st sign megablastic anemia (folate deficint)
- -weakness, sore tongue, back pain, and tingling in extremetie
- left untreated can lead to permanent damaged nerve strengths, creeping paralysis
- 10-20% of older adults get this
Folate "masking" B12 deficiency is?
supplementation of folate improves anemia but still get nerve damage
Vit. B12 sources its found in?
- Animal products
- vegetarians need to supplement this
Functions of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) are?
- Collagen synthesis
- iron absorption
- reacts with other food components
- decreased risk of common cold
Collagen synthesis is in?
- Connective tissue
- blood vessels
- increases the cross-connection between amino acids making collagen stronger.
Antioxidant donates what?
- electrons to free radicals which avoids oxidative stress.
- helps vit. E stay in active form
Iron absorption keeps what?
- iron in its most absorbable form
- increase vit. C can = too much iron absorption and toxicity
What are some ex. that react w/ other food components?
- 1.reactivates vit. E so that it can be reused
- 2. decreased formation of nitrosamines for nitrite
- -may decrease some cancer
Decreased risk of common cold with vit. C is involved w/?
- activity of certain immune cells
- doesn't decrease cold, but may shorten the time you have it.
Vit. C deficiency are?
- take 20-40 days to become deficient
- open wonds
- bleeding gums
- bleedning around hair follicles
Vit. C toxicity is?
- abdominal cramps