Bacterial meningitis can be very severe and cause brain damage, hearing loss, or learning disability.
Viral meningitis is less severe and usually resolves without treatmnet. It is caused by infection with one of several types of virus and is rarely fatal
What are the most common cuses of bacterial meningitis?
Bacterial meningitis-- 5 species cause 90% of bacterial meningitis cases
streptococcus pneumoniae- leading cause in adults
neisseria menigitidis- due to fimbria, capsule, and lipooligosaccharide
haemophilus influenzae- leading cause prior to vaccine
listeria monocytogenes- disease in fetuses, prego women, and immunocompromised individuals
streptococcus agalactiae- causes most cases of new born meningitis (doesn’t occur often)
What are the most common causes of viral meningitis?
Caused by infection with one of several types of virus
About 90% of the time it's enterovirus although herpes virus and mumps virus can also caus the disease.
How does the tetanus toxin work?
The oxin produced by C. tetani is a neruogenic toxin, meaning that it has an affinity for and targets nervous tissue.
Called either tetanospasmin or tetanus toxin, it acts by enzymatically degrading proteins required for normal physiology in nervous tissue.
The botulism toxin
This toxin is ingested as a preformed component and is ingested as a preformed component and is absorbed directlytherough the intestinal tract, reaching the neuromuscular junction target bia the bloodstream.
Once bound there, the toxin inhibits teh release of acetylcholine, causing muscular paralysis.
The symptoms observed depend on which nerves are bound by the toxin, and damage to the nerves after toxin has bound is permanent.
What are the three forms of botulism?
How is rabies treated
Treatment consists of a course of injectios that are only beneficial if administered before the onset of symptoms
Intesnsive supportive care can result in longer-term survival
Symptoms of rabies
A relentless progression of excess motor activity
Severe throat contraction when swallowing
The illness begins iwth nonspecific fevere, headache, malaise, nausea, and vomiting.
What are the four types of poliomyelitis
abortive/asymptomatic infections- almost 90% of all cases
nonparalytic polio- stiff neck, muscle spasms and back pain
paralytic polio- produces paralysis; can be can systemic and can affect all muscle systems or just a few → death can occur due to lack of ability to breathe
post polio syndrome- condition that occurs 20-30-40 years after initial infection; not well understood; groups of muscles affected start to deteriorate (you don’t have the virus in your body anymore); your muscles atrophy and eventually there is no muscle left → no way to prevent it.
Pathogen and pathogenesis of polio
Poliovirus is the causative agent
transmitted most often by drinking contaminated water
Host/victim of EEE
Horses and people
Host/victim of WEE
horses and people
Host/victim of St. Louis encephalitis
horses and humans
host/victim of West Nile virus
Horses, humans, birds
Causitive agent of encephalitis
Causitive agent of tetanus
Causitive agent of botulism
Causitive agent of polio
causitive agent of rabies
One of the most dangerous results of infectinon of the central nervous system is