Gonadal hormones and oral contraceptives

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threstrepmutan
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80727
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Gonadal hormones and oral contraceptives
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2011-04-19 19:04:50
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Gonadal hormones
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Gonadal hormones
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  1. LH and FSH effects on both males and females?
    Males: LH Increases androgens. FSH stimulates spermatogenesis.

    Females: LH and ovulation. FSH increases progesterone and estrogen.
  2. Name a slow release androgen ester that can be used SC or IM.
    testosterone cypionate
  3. Nandrolone is active orally and increases anabolic activity. Nandrolone is a 19-____________.
    19-norandrogen
  4. Name 2 17α alkylandrogen's that are active orally and increase anabolic activity.
    • Methyltestosterone
    • Fluoxymesterone
  5. List 4 therapeutic uses of androgens.
    • 1. Hypogonadism (primary and secondary)
    • 2. Catabolic states (aids)
    • 3. Anemia------> Increase erythropoiesis
    • 4. Short stature?
  6. What are some of the adverse effects of androgens?
    • 1. Virilization (irreversible effects)
    • 2. Edema
    • 3. Hepatic dysfunction
    • 4. Decreased spermatogenesis.
    • 5. changes in serum lipids (decreased HDL/LDL)
    • 6. Increased aggressiveness (CNS)
    • 7. Sexual development effects.
  7. Androgens are contraindicated in _________ and _______.
    Pregnant women and prostate cancer.
  8. Antiandrogens have two mechanisms, ___________ and __________.

    List some drugs from each group.
    • Receptor antagonists: 1. flutamide (3X)
    • (prostate cancer, hisutism) 2.bicalutamide(1X)
    • 3.spironolactone

    • 5α reductase inhibitors: 1. Finasteride
    • (BPH) 2. dutasteride
  9. What are the 3 types of estrogens?
    estradiol, estrone, estriol (pregnancy)
  10. List some of estrogens actions.
    • Sex characteristics (breast/uterus)
    • Increased muscle mass (anabolic)
    • minceralcorticoid (Na, H20)
    • Decreased bone resorption and increased blood clotting.
  11. List two 17α alkylestrogens.
    ethinylestradiol, mestranol
  12. List 4 therapeutic uses of estrogens.
    • 1. Oral contraceptives (main use)
    • 2. Menopause. (hot flashes)---conjugated estrogens.
    • 3. Osteoporosis.
    • 4. Hypogonadism (primary, secondary).
  13. What are some of the adverse effects of estrogens?
    • 1. nausea
    • 2. Migraine
    • 3. Tender breast
    • 4. thromboembolic disorder/hypertension
    • 5. carcinogenesis (vaginal/cervical, endometrial, breast)
    • 6. postmenopausal bleeding.
  14. What tamoxifen used for and what is its actions on the Breast, Uterus, Bone, CV system (Ag or Antag)
    Tamoxifen is used for breast cancer

    • Breast- Antag
    • Uterus- Ag
    • Bone- Ag
    • CV system- Ag
  15. What raloxifene used for and what is its actions on the Breast, Uterus, Bone, CV system (Ag or Antag)
    Raloxifene is used for osteoporosis.

    • Breast- Antag
    • Uterus- Antag
    • Bone- Ag
    • CV System- Ag
  16. What is clomiphene and fulvestrant used for and what are their actions on the Breast, Uterus, Bone, CV system (Ag or Antag)
    They are used for Infertility/Breast cancer.

    • Breast- Antag
    • Bone- Antag
    • Uterus- Antag
    • CV system- Antag
  17. List 2 therapeutic uses of progestins.
    • 1. Contraception
    • 2. Suppress abnormal uterine function. (Endometriosis, dysmenorrhea, abnormal bleeding)
  18. There are 6 progestins we need to know for this exam.
    Name all 6 of them.
    • Drospirenone
    • Medroxyprogesterone acetate
    • megestrol
    • norethindrone
    • norgestrel
    • progesterone
  19. What are some of the adverse effects of progestins?
    • 1. Weight gain, acne, depression.
    • 2. Irregular cycles.
    • 3. Excess body hair!
    • 4. Teratogenesis.
  20. What the hell is RU486?
    Mifepristone- interferes with actions of progesterone during pregnancy.
  21. 4 oral contraceptives
    1. Combination type (Estrogen and progesterone)

    Combination type have constant estrogen with increasing amounts of progesterone throughout the month. Monephasic, biphasic, triphasic.

    • 2. Progestin only (Oral, IM, Transdermal)
    • 3. Postcoital ( E+P or P alone. Large dose.)
    • 4. RU486

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