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What three factors exist in all groups?
- a) two or more people
- b) interacting
- c) meeting a common goal
What is the group continuum?
scale showing distance between two extremes in groups (primary and secondary)
What is an example fo a primary group?
What is an example of a secondary group?
What are the five factors of of primary groups?
- frequent and intimate
- strong identification with group
- emotional bonds with group
- relationships are diffuse (people hang out when they don't have to)
- relationships tend to be permanent
What are five factors of secondary groups?
- infrequent and impersonal
- weak identification with group
- weak or no bonds
- relationships limited to tasks
- relationships tend to temporary
What is the differnce between task and maintenance leadership?
- task: focused on achieving goal
- maintenance: focused on well being of group
List and define (add when each is appropriate) three task leadership strategies.
- laissez-faire: laid back approach. appropriate when group members know what they're doing.
- democratic: seeks input from all members. appropriate with lost of time.
- authoritarian: dictates direction of group activities. appropriate when there is an expert, or little time
Intentially trying to impose physical or emotional harm
When individuals or groups work together to both benefit
When individuals or groups oppose each other so that one may benefit or win.
similar to cooperation yet each side must give up something in order for both to be happy
when two previously distinct groups come together and form one unified group.
What did the Asch Conformity Experiement measure?
conformity related to peer pressure (line test)
What did the Milgram Experiement measure?
obediance to authority (electric shock).
What is a membership group?
a group to which people actually belong
What is a reference group?
group you use in order to make some sense of the world.
Reference groups help to... (2)
- decide which norms to follow
- make judgements about oneself
Are primary and secondary groups membership or reference groups or both?
What are three factors of an in group?
- strong identification with group
- sense of loyalty
- personal commitment
What is an example of an in group?
What are three factors of an out group?
- no identification
- sense of opposition
- competition and conflict
Are in and out groups membership or reference groups or both?
Can be both
How do groups distinguish between members and non members, (social boundaries)? (2)
What are five examples of symbollic ways for a group to distinguish between members and non members?
- hand gestures
- body art
What are four examples of physical ways for a group to distinguish between members and non members?
- playing field
What did Stoner's Risky Shift say?
individuals make riskier decisions when in the context of a group?
What were the three reasons for Stoner's Risky Shift?
- 1) shared responsibility/consequences
- 2) society values risk (people don't want to be seen as wimps)
- 3) Leaders are risk-takers (leader can influence the entire group
T or F? A significant other can be a powerful stimulus for behavioral change.
T or F? An individual can be an active member of a group he/ she considers to be an out group.
List the four functions of group conflict.
- increases communication
- signals underlying dissatsifaction
- prevents accumulation of dissastifaction
- acts as a safety valve