Unit3Anthropology

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hydeab
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80776
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Unit3Anthropology
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2011-04-19 22:54:08
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Anthropology
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Nest in the Wind
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  1. What is the difference between sex and gender?
    • – Sex is biological
    • – Gender is a social/cultural construct.
    • • Feminine traits?
    • • Masculine traits?
    • • Is biology destiny?
    • • Biologically female = feminine
    • • Biologically male = masculine– Not necessarily
    • • All cultures recognize two genders and two sexes
    • • But some recognize more than two genders.
  2. Who is Margaret Mead?
    • – Sex and Temperament in Three Primitive Societies 1935
    • – New Guinea
    • • Arapesh…mts
    • • Mundugumor…by river
    • • Tchambuli…by lake
  3. Arapesh
    • – Gentle
    • – Basic h/g division of labor
    • – Patrilineal and patrilocal
    • – Growing food and their children is considered a great adventure in their lives
    • – Both feminine
  4. Mundugumor
    • – Violent…cannibalistic
    • – Independent
    • – Lustful of power and position
    • – Fight and compete for women
    • – Polygynous
    • – Men make the yam gardens …women do everything else
    • – Both…masculine, virile….no softness or conception femininity
  5. Tchambuli
    • – Graceful headhunters
    • – Food is abundant and easily obtained
    • – Love art…live mainly to produce art
    • – Patrilineal and polygynous
    • – Both are artistic…produce theatrical spectacles
    • – Men
    • • Are the head hunters
    • • Lazy
    • • May hunt occasionally
    • • Their daily activities
    • • Called together in the am by flute
    • • They gather to crochet, string shells for necklaces, or work on their art project
    • – Women
    • • Fish
    • • Garden
    • • Conduct the work and organization of the tribe
    • • Cook
    • • Mend fishing gear
    • • Have the position of power and the money
    • • Supply the food
    • • Attitude toward husband is kindly tolerance and appreciation
    • – Men
    • • Are interested in their own beauty, dressing to look pretty,
    • • Petty
    • • Soft spoken
    • • Hair is carefully arranged in curls
    • • Mincing steps
    • • Self conscious
    • • Allowed to shop and given money to do so
  6. • Gender is assumed to be constant throughout a person’s life.
    – But not everywhere.
    • Hua, Berdache
    • • Hua
    • – Anna Meigs
    • – Hort
    • – Villages of 100to 300
    • – 1 or more large men’s houses that is occupied by initiated men and post- menopausal women who have had 2 or more children and have been initiated
    • – Why can these women live in the men’s house?
    • – It has to do with how Hua construct gender.
    • – Nu...a life giving substance thought of as a real physical substance
    • – Can be transferred between people
    • – Can be gained of lost
    • – Female bodies have a excess of Nu and it allows them to grow faster and age slower than men
    • – Males have much less Nu than women
    • – Nu is in
    • • Breath as a gas
    • • Liquid….blood, sweat, semen and women’s sexual secretions
    • • NU can be transferred by
    • • Eating food someone as prepared
    • • Sexual encounters
    • • Is bad…it polluter and debilitates the man
    • • He gives his scarce nu to the woman thru breath and semen
    • • Indirect of indirect contact
    • • After decades of this contact elderly men become immune to further contamination by the transfer of nu
    • • Women lose nu thru child birth, menstruation, handling food. When the women have lost most of their nu they become like men and are no longer a threat to the men.
  7. •Berdache
    • – Men whose spirit is female.
    • – They are biologically male but take on the female role
    • – Dress as women
    • – Are usually creative and in touch with the supernatural
    • – They mediate between
    • – Male and female
    • – Natural/physical world and supernatural/spiritual world
    • – How does this person realize that their spirit is different?
    • – 9- 12 it becomes apparent to their parents…and often to him that the boy that his spirit is different
    • – Tests
    • – Led into circle…music...if he dances
    • – Led into brush enclosure…basket….bow & arrows…set on fire…what he grabs
    • – Ceremony
    • – Dressed in woman’s clothes
    • – Renames self with a feminine name
    • – Rather than reject …they accept as special person who has a role and place in the society
  8. – Plaines Indians have:
    • • Manly Hearted Woman
    • – Typical female …passive…docile
    • – Manly Hearted women are aggressive and outspoken in public affairs…wives and mothers
    • – Usually wealthy …hard worker
    • – Tans more hides...prod better quality bead work
    • – Many were medicine women
    • • More independent
    • • Had equal say in family matters
    • • Took over husband property and controlled it …
    • • Were desirable as wives because of their wealth and high status
    • • Women Chiefs
    • – Took on men’s role
    • – Rode horses
    • – Hunted with bow and gun
    • – Went to fight in wars
    • – Lead raiding parties
    • – Head of family
    • • Council
    • • Chief
    • • Paid bride wealth for a woman to do the woman’s labor
    • • Biology is not destiny
  9. What are economic systems?
    • • How goods and services are produced, distributed and consumed
    • • Is the dominate form of exchange in h/g societies…all band members share food and work
  10. What is redistribution?
    • • Required by a third party…chief, sate, government
    • • 2nd major mode of exchange
    • • Goods and/or money collected from individuals or groups…taken to a central place and put into a common fund to be reallocated to others
    • • Taxes
    • – Social services
    • – To other countries
    • – Pork barrel
    • – Infrastructure
    • • Disaster relief…
    • – Natural
    • – Illness
    • – War
    • • Charities
  11. Conflicts that arise with redistribution
    • • Often there is conflict
    • – Who should provide the resources
    • – To whom and how much should be given
    • – How much should go to those that collect the goods/money
    • • Conflict/differences between political parties about how public resources should be spent:
    • Education
    • Welfare
    • Food
    • Stamps
    • Unemployment
    • War/military
    • Medicare
    • Environment issues
  12. Potlach
    • • Pacific Northwest...Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tlingit
    • • Originally done to celebrate life cycle events
    • • Is a feast with dancing, singing and a redistribution of many kinds of wealth by the chief to his people, chiefs of other villages and invited guests
    • • Social status. .is very important and was inherited but had to be validated by a potlatch
    • • Host traced his line of descent as proof of his status
    • • If the good given away were not high quality and of sufficient quantity the chief
    • would lose status.
    • • Competitive potlatches...goods ( canoes, blankets and even slaves) were destroyed...burned
    • Potlatch Today
    • • Still done today
    • • Commemorate a death of an important person
    • • Celebrate pole raisings
    • • Political activities
    • • Community celebrations Other people who potlatch
    • • Trobriand Islanders
    • • Samoa
    • • Ancient China
  13. Leveling mechanisms
    • • Even out the distribution of wealth
    • • Even out economic differences
    • • Goods for prestige
    • • The most prestigious may be the poorest
    • • Amatenango, Mexico
    • • Several leveling mechanisms
    • • Org. production by household…limits economic
    • growth so keeps all at the same
    • • Estates are inherited by all children equally so it is very difficult for large estates to continue over generations
    • • Accusations of witchcraft…anyone who manages to accumulate more wealth than other is accused of being a witch…esp. if they are wealthy and stingy….likely to be killed
    • • Cargo System
    • • Cargos are religious offices
    • • Each man should hold 12 cargos (religious offices) during his lifetime after which he can retire from public life
    • • Are expensive to hold involve his time and money…no time to work at a job…must make
    • several different kinds of donations…big drain of family resources.
    • • Rich stay rich and poor stay poor
    • • In reality has little impact on individual status thus is a failed leveling mechanism
    • • Those who can afford to do this gain status
  14. Market exchange
    • • Goods and services bought with money
    • • Cost of goods and services are set by supply and demand
    • • Very impersonal and social position of those involved in the transaction not important
    • • Is the most “purely” economic mode of exchange
    • • Money must be
    • – Durable
    • – Controllable
    • – Govt makes the money legal tender and stands behind its value
    • • Standard value = how much is something worth
    • • Portable wealth
  15. Capitalism
    • • Most societies that rely on market exchange are capitalistic
    • • Three Fundamental Attributes of Capitalism
    • 1. Most productive resources and capital
    • goods are owned by a small portion of the population
    • 2. most people’s primary resource is their labor
    • 3.Wage worker never receives in pay the full value of her/his work
    • • Wal-Mart…$600
    • • IBM…$2,000
    • • Microsoft…$20,000
    • • It is the most prominent economic system in the world
    • • Transforms traditional economies worldwide and even members of traditional societies enter the market economy today as low-wage earners
    • • When small number of people own or control basic resources the results in difference
    • economic and social classes
    • • Capitalism means there will always be the rich and the poor
  16. Resistance to Capitalism
    • • Spanish Gypsies
    • – Painters
    • – Self-employed scrap dealers
    • – Discount clothes merchant
    • – Part-time farm worker
    • – Avoid wage labor (working for others) whenever possible
    • Putnam County, NY
    • – 2 kind of residents
    • Commuters
    • • Travel to NYC to work union scale jobs such
    • as police, fire fighters, teachers
    • • In debt
    • • Hope to move to a more prosperous location
    • • Long time (generations) residents
    • – Own farmland…supplies food for family
    • – Have skills… plumber, electrician. Car mechanic...trade these skills between other residents and sell skills to the commuter families Are not involved very much in market and wage labor

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