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A theory that classification differentiates between shared ancestral and shared derived features.
A group of species with a common evolutionary ancestry.
can similarities arise by chance?
includes all of the descendant species of the original hominin population, species we place into the tribe hominini...
A recently appearing homology that is shared by a relatively small group of closely related taxa.
shared derived (synapomorphic) feature
Compared with shared derived features, a homology that did not appear as recently and is therefore shared by a larger group of species.
shared ancestral (sympesiomorphic) feature
A feature that is unique to a particular species
uniquely derived (autopomorphic) feature
Species used in a cladistic analysis that are closely related to the species being studied and are used to differentiate between shared derived and ancesteral derived features.
In cladistic analysis, features that appear in most of all species including the outgroup are assumed to be...
those found in the original set, but not in the outgroup are assumed to be...
- shared ancestral features
- shared derived features
A graphic representation of a species, or other taxa, being studied, based on cladistic analysis.
Depicts relationships among taxa, but does not depict temporal relationships
the three domains of life...
- Eukaryota (eukaryotes)
the two domains that consist of cells without nuclei...
the four knigdoms of the domain Eukaryota...
- Kingdom Protista
- Kingdom Fungi
- Kingdom Planti
- Kingdom Animalia
four traits of members of the animal kingdom...
- incapable of synthasizing own food
- specalized cells
- high mobility
- nerves and sensing organs
How many animal phyla do biologists recognize?
the 9 common animal phyla...
- Porifera (sponges)
- Cnidaria (jellyfish and anemones)
- Platyhelminthes (tapeworms)
- Nematoda (roundworms)
- Annelida (earthworms)
- Echinodermata (starfish, sea urchins)
- Arthropoda (spiders, crayfish)
- Chordata (fish, reptiles, birds, mammals)
organism characterized by the presence of a notochord, a dorsal, hollow, single nerve chord, and gill slit at some point in the life cycle...
A cartiliaginous rod that runs along the back (dorsal) of all chordates at some point in their life cycle.
Toward the top or back of an animal.
Towatd the front or bottom side of an animal
Structures that filter out food particles in nonvertebrate chordates and are used for breathing in some vertebrates.
Human embryos have structrures that are thought to be precursers to gill slits.
True or False?
the seven living classes of vertebrates...
- Agatha (jawless vertebrates)
- Chondrichthyes (sharks and rays)
- Osteichtheys (bony fish)
- Amphibia (amphibians)
- Reptilia (reptiles)
- Aves (birds)
- Mammaila (mammals)
the three subphylum of phylum Chordata..
- Tunicata (tunicates)
- Cephalchordata (Amphioxus)
pre-existing structures in jawless vertebrates that gave rise to jaws...
Skeletal elements supporting the gill slits in nonvertebrate chordates and some vertebrates.
When did terrestrial vertebrates evolve?
aquatic vertebrate adaptatio of legs, lungs and amniote eggs, which allowed them to move onto the land are examples of...
three changes that made life spent totally on land possible...
- increased effenciency of the lungs
- waterproof skin
- amniote egg
An egg with a shell and membranes, which made reproduction of land possible.
Members of a class of the subphylum Vertebrata, that are characterized by a constant level of activity independent of external temperature and by mammary glands, hair or fur, heterodonty, and other features.
Where does fertilization of an amniote egg take place?
inside the female, before the shell is formed
When was the reptililan radiation?
What had to happen in order for the mammals to dominate?
demise of the dinosaurs
Using behavoir, such as avoiding heat or seeking sources of heat, to regulate body temperature.
The ability to control body temperature and maintain a high body temperature through physiological means.
4 requirements of homothermy...
- mechanisms in the brain
- hair or fur
- sweat glands
- larger intake of food
Dentition characterized by regional differentiation of teeth by function.
Having two sets of teeth, the deciduous and the permanent teeth.
The bone of the lower jaw; contains the lower dentition.
A muscle that lies beneath the lungs increases, causig a lowering of pressure within the lungs and movement of air from the outside of the lungs. When relaxed, air is expelled from the lungs.
The bony roof of the mouth that seperates the mouth from the nasal cavity, permitting the animal to breath and chew at the same time.
A heart that is divided into two sets of pumping chambers, effectively seperating oxygenated blood fron the lungs from deoxygenated blood from the body.
Glands found in mammalian females that produce milk.
How many bones are there in the reptilian lower jaw?
In the mammal lower jaw?
what happened to 2 of the reptilian lower jaw bones in mammals?
they moved into the inner ear
how many bonne are there in the reptilian inner ear?
in the mammalian inner ear?
How are the reptilian and mammalian tympanic membrane different?
- mammalian eardrum and middle ear are encased in bone
- reptilian tympanic membrane is near the surface