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chemically unrelated organic substances that are grouped together because each is essential in the diet in minute amounts and is required for specific metabolic reactions.
Vitamins do not provide energy. B vitamin helps the body use what for fuel?
Choline function is?
synthesis of acetylcholine (neurotransmitter) and lecithin (phospholipid).
Choline is conditionly required because?
you can make it in your body but not going to make enough.
B Vitamins function as what?
- coenzyme in metabolism
- do not produce any energy important for energy production.
Functions of Thiamin?
- part of the coenzyme Thiamin pyrophosphate. (involved in energy metabolism)
- on membranes of nerve cells. (relies on thiamin for function)
Deficiency of Thiamin?
- damage to nervous system, heart, & other muscles.
- Seen when white rice is a staple food.
Thiamin Toxicity is?
in alcoholics 4:5 are deficiant in thiamin b/c causes discreation of thiamin.
For water soluble vitamins boiling =
- decrease water soluble vitamins
- this case heat actually destroys it.
FAD can accept and donate H's during?
FADH2 is involved in how many steps?
Riboflavin deficiency are?
inflammation of mouth, skin, and eyelids; sensitivity to light.
not going to see a lot of.
Niacin functions are?
part of coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (involved w/ energy metabolism) and NADP
Deficiency of Niacin? 4 D's
- 1. Diarria
- 2. Dermatits
- 3. demantia
- 4. death
when corn was staple food would see this happening.
- not going to see unless supplimenting.
- capillaries will dialate and cause a tingle sensation that can be painful.
- part of coenzyme used in energy metabolism, fat synthesis, amino acid metabolism, and glycogen synthesis.
- involved with TCA cycle
- going towards storeage and breaking down.
Deficiency of Biotin?
- Binds biotin
- -in raw eggs
- rare to see
Pantothenic Acid functions are?
- involved in fatty acid bio-synthises and also F.A. degradation
- component of coenzyme A
- 70 different enzymes need this coenzyme (CoA or ACP)
Pyridoxal phosphate (vit. B6) functions are?
- part of coenzyme PLP and PMP?
- -amino acid metabolism
- -serotonin synthesis
- -Heme synthesis
Serotonin synthesis is?
PLP involved w/ making serotonin from tryptoptian involved w/ appetie
- sleep regulation
- neuro transmitter
- sinsory perception (mood)
Deficiency of Pyridoxal Phosphate (vit B6)
- Depression and confusion
- -neurotransmitter not made
- microcytic anemia
- -can't make hemengloben
- unable to carry sufficiante amount of o2 to blood.
Vit. B6 toxicity is?
- nerves damage
- can get to this level
- associated w/ neurological damage
Folate (folic Acid) functions are?
- Part of coenzyme THF
- the movement of single C's important for DNA synthesis
- purine synthesis
- also involved w/ B12
Neural tube defects are?
- folate supplementation decreases spinal bifida
- started fortifying grains in 1996
- fortification has worked and decreased birth defects.
Spinal Bifida is?
- imcumplet closing at spinal cord -paralysis, club feet, dislocated hip, curvurture of spin.
- happens durring pregnancy
Folate and cardiovascular disease is?
- higher homocysteine levels in blood increase cardio vascular disease
- damage vascular cells
decrease folate =
Folate Deficiency are?
Megaloblastic Anemia is?
- you dont synthasise DNA properly in red blood cells
- RBC's get large but dont divide
- keep swelling and cant make new ones
Imature RBC's dont carry what?
Unique aspects of Vit. B12 are?
- absorbed in small intestin
- most deficiencies due to this system not working right
- can occur in older age
Functions of Vit. B12 are?
- Folate metabolism
- normal function as nerve cells
Folate metabolism is required to?
Convert folate coenzymes to active forms.
Normal function as nerve cells do what?
maintain the myelin sheath that insalates nerve fibers from each other for proper function.
a Decrease in B12 =
patchy destraction of myelin sheath
can lead to creeping paralysis or death
Vit. B12 deficincy are?
Pernicious anemia is?
- 1st sign megablastic anemia (folate deficint)
- -weakness, sore tongue, back pain, and tingling in extremetie
- left untreated can lead to permanent damaged nerve strengths, creeping paralysis
- 10-20% of older adults get this
Folate "masking" B12 deficiency is?
supplementation of folate improves anemia but still get nerve damage
Vit. B12 sources its found in?
- Animal products
- vegetarians need to supplement this
Functions of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) are?
- Collagen synthesis
- iron absorption
- reacts with other food components
- decreased risk of common cold
Collagen synthesis is in?
- Connective tissue
- blood vessels
- increases the cross-connection between amino acids making collagen stronger.
Antioxidant donates what?
- electrons to free radicals which avoids oxidative stress.
- helps vit. E stay in active form
Iron absorption keeps what?
- iron in its most absorbable form
- increase vit. C can = too much iron absorption and toxicity
What are some ex. that react w/ other food components?
- 1.reactivates vit. E so that it can be reused
- 2. decreased formation of nitrosamines for nitrite
- -may decrease some cancer
Decreased risk of common cold with vit. C is involved w/?
- activity of certain immune cells
- doesn't decrease cold, but may shorten the time you have it.
Vit. C deficiency are?
- take 20-40 days to become deficient
- open wonds
- bleeding gums
- bleedning around hair follicles
Vit. C toxicity is?
- abdominal cramps
When ATP is used in the process what is always lost?
At rest what makes creatine phosphate?
ATP and Creatine
During Activity creatine phosphate is broken down to?
ATP and Creatine
Lactic Acid build up causes?
- decrease in ph
- causes muscle pain/burning
What is the Cori cycle?
Muscle releases Lactic Acid into liver then filters it, converts it to glucose.
Anaerobic excercise is?
- Strength and agilitys
- split seconds of power
ex: tennis serve, lefting weights, burst of speed
Aerobic excercise is?
- low and moderate entensity over a long duration
- dependent more on fat
ex: long swim, hiking, jogging
3 major things that influence ATP for longer periods of time are?
- 1. what is available from the diet
- 2. the intensity and duration of avtivity
- 3. degree in which body is conditioned to perform.
The more glycogen a muscle can store the longer the store will do what?
will last during exercise which influences performance.
high amounts of carbs =
high glycogen stores =
1st 20 minutes of exercise uses?
after that it uses?
Intense activity glycogen is used up?
How long glycogen stores will last depends on what?
Not only diet but the activity
Whats "hitting the wall"?
physical exertion becomes nearly impossible.
after a few hours of strenuous activity (aerobic) glycogen gets depleted.
happens to marathon runners
How to maximize Glucose supply/
- - During last stages of endurance activity glucose consumed during the event goes from G1 to muscles providing needed glucose.
- - eating w/in 15 min. accelerates glycogen. high glycemic foods are better
how do you do carbohydrate loading?
- get glycogen stores as high as possible
- eat little carbs
- do not want to do this often can cause anhythmias
- maybe do it 2-4 times a year
Body fat utilization is very important during aerobic exercise because?
it provides a lot of energy.
What are the activity effects on
over 20 minutes
higher less fat will be used
allows body to adapt. and use more fat. you get more mitocondria out of this.
Ergogenic aids are?
Substances or devices that enhance energy production, use or recovery and provide athletes with a competitive advantage.
energy metabolism is?
includes all the reactions by which the body obtains and spends the energy from food.
What is Metabolism?
- Sum of all chemical reactions that take place in living cells.
- -Energy you get from eating plants/animals.
- -Dont get all the energy.
Carbohydrates go to what in absorption?
Lipids go to what in absorption?
Glycerol + Fatty Acids
Proteins go to what in absorption?
- -primarily for building protein
- - 10-15% comes from protien
Smaller molecules are put together to build larger molecules.
-Have to put energy in to occur
Both types of reactions are common because? (anabolism and catabolism)
in metabolic pathways dependent on the metabolic state of the person.
fed vs. fasted
Large molecules are broken down to small molecules
-energy is released
In general we store energy as either what? (2 ways)
The energy released from the breakdown of these 4 basic building blocks is often captured in what bonds?
Common high energy storage compound.
-As we start to release energy it is temporarly stored in ATP.
- During chemical reactions
What makes up a couple reaction?
ATP and parent compound
What is ATP used for?
Used to transfer energy released during catabolic rxn's to power its anabolic reactions.
- -Heat is released when happening about 60% is heat.
- -some energy is lost as heat
Pyruvate has how many carbon compounds?
Acetyle CoaA has how many carbon compounds?
NADH and FADH2 are what?
complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to affilate activity.
Pyruvate can be used to make what and acetyle CoA can not?
Number of Carbons are key to what?
Were they enter metabolisum.
3 carbon structures are used to make what?
2 carbon structures can not make what?
fatty acids enter at?
ACetyl CoA which is why they can not form glucose
Some Amino Acids can make what?
NADH and FADH2 go to what?
the electron transport chain and are used to make ATP
glucose ----> pyravate=
NADH and FADH2 don't produce what in the same amounts?
Oxygen has to be present, if not goes towards lactate
Does not have oxygen?
Pyruvate can enter 1 or 2 ways dependent on what?
Because fatty acids come in as acetyl CoA they can not be used to make?
Fatty Acids enter as?
2 carbon compounds combined with COA to form Acetyl COA
called fatty acid oxidation
3 carbon compound
used to go towards glucose
There are 3 ways TG provide compounds to make ATP what are they?
- 1. glycerol (3 carbon comp.) enters as pyrubate
- 2. The assetal CoA fatty acid entering the TCA cycle
- 3. NADH and FADH2 from fatty acid that enters the electron train.
can enter as intermediates of the TCA cycle
many Amin acids can be used to make?
this will be important when we consider a long term fast.
3 major keytone bodies?
- 1. betahydrocsbutarate
- 2. Acetoacitate
- 3. Acetone
Produces small amounts
always have some in system
Reduces loss of appitite
your brain gives up telling you that you are hungry.
low carb diets can force you into this
Nutrigenetics refers to what?
The specific gene sequence differences between humans and how these affect the differences in repsonses to diet and particular needs for nutrients.
- The study of the effects of diet on the expression of all genes and their functions
- What are the 2 major classifications?
- Fat Soluble and Water Soluble
What is the 1st fat-soluble vitamin found?
What are the three major forms in animals?
- retinoic acid
What is Beta-carotene?
- found in plants
- you get it from eating carrots
What are the functions of vitamin A?
- maintains the cornea
- transparent membrane caring the outside of the eye
Cells in the retina contain the pigment what?
Rhodepsin is what?
made up of protein opsin and 1 molecule of retinal.
What is epithelial cells?
Cells that line any surface that has contact with outside
Tissues and cells that produce mucus must have?
Infections diseases are big problems with?
Vitamin A deficiency
1st level; when retinal does not receive enough retinal to rejuvenate visual pigment.
- full blindness
- no vitamin A at cornia.
- Will get hard and dry which is (reversable)
- Then eventually very soft (irreversable)= blindness
- skin cells start making keratin
- gets dry, rough, and scaley
Beta-Carotene as antioxidant is?
Biological activity is to act as a antioxidant that can deactivate free radicals.
what are vitamin a deficiencies?
- infectious disease
- night blindness
- blindness (xerophthalmia)
What are vitamin A toxicity?
- Bone defects
- Birth defects
- Acne treatments
- Excess beta- carotene leads to skin discoloration
What are bone defects?
Excessive vitamin A can weaken bones and cause bones to be more prone to fractures
Consumes high amounts. About 7th week of pregnancy can happen.
Acutane-causes birthdefects-> vitamin A
What are the functions of vitamin D?
- 1. enhance absorbtion and the GI track
- 2. increases reabsorbtion in kidneys
- 3. increases mobilization from bones to blood.
What are Vitamin D deficiency?
- can occur in older adults
- In children- causes growth retardation, happens when bones fail to calcify
- bones weak and bend (boned legs)
Adults form of rickets
- in women with repeated pregnancy
- low sun exposer
- low calcium intake
How does vitamin D deficiency occur in older adults?
- 1. skin, liver, kidney less cappable of making vitamin D
- 2. don't drink much milk
- 3. Don't go outside
High blood calcium occurs with?
- high vitamin D intake causes:
- calcium stones in soft tissue such as kidneys
Only vitamin D products can cause toxity not from the sun
Vitamin E's most active form is?
alpha in humans
Erythrocyte hemolysis is what?
Bursting of red blood cells occurs when poly unsatturated fatty acids in cell membrain of red blood cells oxidize RBC's break open and spill contents
can occur in infants
Vitamin K is produced by?
Bacteria and GI track
Ifants are sterol at birth and given what shot?
Vitamin K so not defestiont
What are the functions of Vitamin K?
- synthesis of bone proteins
- blood clotting
- if you don't have vitamin K proteins cant bind calcium.
Hemorrhagic disease is?
excesive bleeding because not forming blood clots.
Sources of vitamin K are?
- bacteria synthesis
- leafy green vegetables
- Energy Balance is?
- amount of fat stored or used in a day is dependent on energy balance.
- 1lb. fat = 3500 calories
- excess energy is stored as fat
- we eat to refill our body
To achieve energy balance your body does what?
- Tries to control how much energy comes in by affecting food intake.
- controls when to stop/start eating
amount of heat released when you burn the food.
measure the amount of oxygen consumed
Bodies goal is
achieve energy balance
children are good at this
physilogical need for food
- response to seeing or smelling food.
- full (not hungry) but still eat pie
signal to stop eating
signal of don't start eating again.
Protien does what?
supresses hunger and inhibits eating the most
- causes carbohydrate cravings
- decreases energy used
- initiates eating.
- increases fat storage
- secreted by stomach cells
- stimulates appitite,
- promotes energy storage
- suppreses appitite,
- increases energy expetiager
easy measurement of how your body uses energy.
Leptin production on people?
only very few people dont produce enough leptin
average person produces enough and given leptin does nothing for them.
the bod's generation of heat is measured to determine what?
the amount of energy expended.
Heat is released when?
- macronutrients used to make ATP
- rest is lost as heat.
Remember metabolic events capture only about 40% of the energy as what?
ATP and the rest lost as heat.
Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR) is?
the rate of energy used for metabolism under specified conditions
this is what we refer too when talking about ppl havinga fast or slow meabolism.
Basal Metabolism is?
energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest.
Resting Metabolic rate (RMR) is?
- less restrictions then BMR
- criteria for recent food intake and physical activity
Physical Avtivity is?
voluntary movement of skeletal muscles and support systems.
most variable and most changeable component of energy expenditure.
3 things that affect physical activity are?
- 1. muscle mass
- 2. body weight
- 3. activety it's self
What is thermic effect of food?
- an estimation of the energy required to process food.
- to digest, absorb, transport, metabolise, and store ingested nutrients
- approximately 10% of energy intake
Adjustments in energy expenditure related to changes in environment and to physiological events.
bodies ability to adjust to the situation
Body composition is?
proportions of muscle, bone, fat, and other tissue that make up a persons total body weight.
Difficult to measure body composition in living humans so we use body weight.
Lean tissue =
bone, muscle, water
Body weight does not=
- body fat
- a sedentary person can be at a healthy weight, but have too much fat.
what is intra-adominal fat?
fat deposited around organs
Central obesity is?
upper body fat mainly associated with heart disease, stroke, diabetes, hypertension, and some cancers.
How do we determine a healthy body composition?
- by good health
- BMI is commonly used for this.
Body Mass Index BMI is calculated how?