Anatomy and Physiology Lab
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Sturcture that suspends the small intestine from the posterior body
Three modifications of the small intestine that increase the surface area for absorption
Villi, microvilli, and plicae circulares
Large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine
Mobile organ that initiates swallowing
The "gullet"; lies posterior to the trachea
Valve at the junction of the small and large intestines
Primary region of the enzymatic digestion
Membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth
Area between the teeth and lips/cheeks
Wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum
Carbohydrate (starch) digestion begins here
Two-layered serous membrane attached to the greater curvature of the stomach
Valve preventing movement of chyme from the duodenum into the stomach
Posterosuperior boundary of the oral cavity
Location of the hepatopancreatic sphincter through which pancreatic secretions and bile pass
Outermost layer of a digestive organ in the abdominal cavity
Principal site for the synthesis of vitamins (B,K) by bacteria
Distal end of the alimentary canal
Bone-supported part of roof of the mouth
Deep folds to the mucosa and submucosa that extend completely or partially around the circumference of the small intestine
Regions that break down food stuffs mechanically
Oral cavity and stomach
Conduit that serves the respiratory and digestive systems
Surface projections of a mucosal epithelial cell
What reagent was used to show protein (amino acids) digestion?
What color is it when digestion occurs?
- Biuret reagent
- Turns a pink-violet color when digestion occurs
What reagent is used to show the digestion of starches? What color is it when digestions occurs? What color is it when digestion doesn't occur?
- Iodine-potassium iodide
- Light brown
- Purple-black color
What reagent is used to show the digestion of lipids and proteins? What color does it show in the presence of acid (broken down lipids)?
- Litmus milk
- Color change is light gray to dark pink-purple
What reagent is used to show absorption in the small intestine? What color does it turn when reacting with glucose?
- Benedicts solution
- Red-orange precipitate
What are the layers of the alimentary canal?
- Muscularis externa
Moves food via peristalis and runs from the pharynx to the stomach
Protein digestion (HCL and pepsinogen released from gastric glands) and has a thick mucus layer for protection
Nearly all food absorptions occurs here and has brush border enzymes, pancreatic enzymes, and bile
Compacts and propels fecal matter to the anus for elimination, provides site for vitamin production, and reclaims water
Tear and grind food.
Adults have 32
Children have 20
What are the functions of the salivary glands and what glands do they consist of?
- Moistens food and helps bind it together
- Contain salivary amylase which begins the digestion of starch
- Parotid glands
- Submandibular glands
- Sublingual glands
Produces bile(no enzymes, emulsifies fats and is stored in the gallbladder) and the portal system brings nutrients here (glucose stored as glycogen)
What is the endocrine and excorine functions of the pancreas?
Endocrine: produces insulin and glucagon
Exocrine: secretes pancreatic enzymes for lipid, protein, and carbohydrate digestion and secretes an alkaline fluid that netralized acidic chyme
What are the lobes of the liver?
- quadreate (by gallbladder)
Blood in the urine
Eating a 5 lb box of candy at one sitting
Urinary Tract Infection
Normal values of urine
- Pale yellow
What is the functions of the urinary system
- Remove nitrogenous wastes from the body
- Kidney maintains electrolyte, acid-base, and fluid balances of the blood
What is the nephron?
What does it consist of?
- Functional unit of the kidney
- Glomerulus(renal tubule and Bowmans capsule)
- Proximal convuluted tubule
- Loop of Henle
- Distal convuluted tubule
- Collecting duct
Located entirely in the cortex
Penetrate into the medulla
How do the blood vessels of the urinary system run?
Renal arteries -->segmental arteries -->lobar arteries -->interlobar arteries -->Arcuate arteries -->cortical radiate arteries -->afferent arterioles -->glomerulus -->efferent aperitubular capillary bed -->cortical radiate veins --> arcuate veins -->interlovar veins -->Renal vein
How does sperm run start to leaving the penis?
- Seminiferous tubules
- Vas deferens
- Ejaculatory duct
What are the male primary sex organs?
What is their endocrine and exocrine functions?
- Sperm production(exocrine)
- Production of testosterone(endocrine)
What do the other structures of the male reproductive system do?
Aid in the safe delivery of sperm to the exterior
What is the functions of the reproductive system in general?
Perpetuate the species
What is the function of the male reproductive system?
manufacture sperm and deliver them to the femal reproductive tract
What is the function of the female reproductive system?
maintain a nurturing protective environment for embryo to grow
What covers the testes and what are the cells it contains and what do they produce?
- Tunica albuginea
- Interstitial cells
- Produce testosterone
Site of sperm production
Site of sperm maturation
Plays a role in activating sperm
Produces a thick alkaline secretion containing fructose
Produces a thick clear mucus that act to wash residual urine out of the urethra
Copulatory orgna of the male
Enlarged tip of the penis
What types of tissue does the penis have?
- Erectile tissue
- Corpus spongiosum
- Corpus cavernosum
- Genetic information(DNA)
- Metabolic region(mitochondria)
What is the primary sex organ of the femlae reproductive system and what are their exocrine and endocrive functions?
- Produce eggs(exocrine)
- Produce estrogen and progesterone(endocrine)
What do the acessory structures of the female reproductive system do?
Transport, house and nurture developing fetus
What does the external genitalia of the female reproductive system consist of?
- Labia Majora
- Labia minora
- Urethral orifice
- Vaginal orifice
Growing follices produce ________, ruputerd follicle becomes _____ which secretes _______.
- Corpus luteum
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