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What are the Seminiferous tuubules?
Area of sperm formatin within Sertoli cells
What is the epididymis?
Area of sperm maturation (develop motility)
What are the vas deferens?
Main storage site for mature sperm
What are the seminal vesicles?
Add nutrients, mucus, and prostaglandins to ejaculated sperm
What does the prostate gland do?
Provides alkalinity to semen required for sperm motility?
What do the bulbourethral glands do?
add mucus, fructose to semen near the origin of the urethra
What are the urethral glands?
- Located along the entirety of the urethra
- Add mucus to the semen, lubricates the urethra
Where do the spermatogonia reside?
In seminiferous tubules until puberty
What is testosterone?
- Secreted by Leydig cells of the testes
- Necessary for growth and division of developing sperm
What is Luteinizing hormone?
Stimulates testosterone production by Leydig cells
What does Follice-stimulating hormone do?
Stimulates Steroli cells to convert spermatids to mature sperm
What are estrogens?
- Formed from conversion to testosterone in Steroli cells
- Important for development to spermatids to sperm
What does Growth hormone do?
Influences many cellular metabolic activites associated with the entire of sperm development
What is the major androgen hormone in males?
What is testosterone converted to at target tissues?
What are the three main functions of testosterone?
- Development of male genitalia in the fetus (about week 7)
- Testicular descent in the fetus (third trimester)
- Development of primary and secondary sex characteristics in the male
What effects the affects of baldness?
- Baldness is increased by testosterone
- Also affected by genetic predisposition
Why does your voice change?
Hypertrophy of larynx and laryngeal mucosa
What are 5 effects testosterone has on the cellular level?
- Thickness of skin (epidermis and dermis)
- Secretion of sebacous glands (acne)
- Protein formation and muscle development
- Bone density
- Basal metabolism
What are the ovaries?
Site of development and maturation of ova
What are the fallopian tubes?
Site of transport of mature ovum from the ovary to the uterus
What is the uterus?
- Specialized organ designed for the implantation of a fertilized ovum, development of the placenta, and growth of a fetus
- Muscular walls provides impulse for partuition under the control of oxytocin
What are the primordial follicles (immature ovum)
- Formed during fetal development
- Arrested in this stage until puberty
What controls the cyclic process of ovulation?
What is a corpus luteum?
Follicle without ovum
What does the corpus luteum do?
Produces estrogen and progesterone
What are the actions of LH?
- Stimulates production of estrogen by granulosa cells of the ovarian follicle
- Stimulates ovulation and production of estrogen and progesterone from the corpus luteum
What are the action of FSH?
Stimulates growth and development of the follicle proior to ovulation
What are the actions of progesterone?
- Prepares endometrium (inner lining of fetus) for fetal implantation
- Stimulates secretions from mucosal lining of fallopian tubes necessary for nutrition of the fertilized ovum
What are the actions of estrogen?
In general, estrogen (estradiol) stimulates cellular proliferation and tissue growth for the female
What female sex characteristics does estrogen stimulate the development of?
- vagina and external genitalia
- Glands of the fallopian tube
- Breast development
What does estrogen cause on a cellular level?
- Bone growth/bone density
- Basal metabolism
- Fat deposition
- skin thickness and skin vascularity
What is included in the follicular phase?
- Increased LH/FSH stimulate growth of 6-12 follicles
- As follicles grow, only one will become the follicle that develops the mature ovum
- ovum is released mid-cycle in response to spike in LH secretion
- Remaining granulosa cells become corpus luteum
- Corpus luteum produces progesterone and estrogen to develop uterine endometrium
Describe the Luteal Phase
- LH stimulates conversion of follicular cells into corpus luteum
- Progesterone and estrogen stimulate endometrial development
Development of endometrium provides:
- Site for embryo implantation
- Nutrient supply to implanted embryo
- Portion of the "soon to develop" placenta
What are the three stages associated with the production of estrogen and progesterone?
- Proliferation of endometrium
- Secretory changes of endometrial tissue
- Desquamation o endometrium
Endometrial cycle has three phases:
- Proliferative phase (estrogen phase)
- Secretory phase (progesterone phase)
What happens in the proliferative phase?
- Estrogen secreted by the ovaries early in the ovarian cycle stimulate cellular epithelium (of endometrium)
- Cell proliferation and glandular development continue in the pre-ovulatory period
What happens in the secretory phase?
- Progesterone from corpus luteum stimulates increased synthesis of lipid and glycogen
- Secretory substances (uterine milk) are increased
- Vascularity of endometrium is increased
Without fertilization and implantatoin, the corpus luteum involutes:
- Signals the cessation of progesterone and estrogen production
- Decrease in these hormones reduces stimulatory effect on endometrial cells and glands
- Results in necrosis of most of the endometrium