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GW that flows freely from rock. Where topography (cliff or hillside intersect aquifer.
Perched Water Table
Small aquifer sitting on an aquitard.
6-9 Degrees warmer than average annual air temp.
Water Fills up caverns
Steam erupts & cavern refills
Drinking water or measuring sample
Cones of Depression
Regional lowering of water table due to overpumping.
GW flows out without pumping. Inclined rock layers. Confined aquifer.
Take long time to recharge
Pure space of aquifer collaspe.Irreversible.
For every 1 m of WT drop due to cone depression. 40 m of saltwater rises
Will contaminates sink or float? GW flow direction. Direction can be reverse by cone of depression.
Limestone dissolved by acid
Underground Rivers & sinkholes
Karst Towers at end
Main erosional agent
Water flowing over the ground surface.
How much water can be absorbed? Material: rain, slope of land, vegetation.
Area where all runoff drains into a specific river or tributaries.
Small river that drains (empties) into a larger one
Elevated ridge separating drainage basins.
Separates streams that flows into the pacific from ones that flow into Gulf or Atlantic.
The interchange or movement of water between air, land, and sea. Evaporation, Transpiration, Precipatation, Runoff, and Infilitration
max load of solid particles a stream can
max particle size a stream can transport
Lowest elevation to which a stream can erode its channel.. Ultimate level is sea level.
Stream Valley Development
V-shaped rapids and waterfalls common.
Flat area covered w/ sediments when streams flood.
Stream Cuts through flood sediments. sea level change or tectonic uplift causes.
River cuts meanders through rock.
Where stream mouth enters a lake or ocean
sediment deposited at base of mountain