Population Ecology

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Population Ecology
2011-04-30 17:39:23
AP Environmental Science

Princeton Review
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  1. Albedo
    The fraction of solar energy that is reflected back into space.
  2. Biotic Potential
    The amount that the population would grow if there were unlimited resources in its environment.
  3. Ecological Footprint
    The amount of the earth's surface that's required to supply the needs of and dispose of the waste from a particular population.
  4. Genetic Drift
    The random fluctuations in the frequency of the appearance of a gene in a small isolated population, presumably owing to chance, rather than natural selection.
  5. k-Selected
    Organisms that reproduce later in life, produce fewer offspring, and devote significant time and energy to the nurturing of their offspring.
  6. Logistic Population Growth
    When a population is well below the size dictated by the carrying capacity of its region, it will grow exponentially, but as it approaches the carrying capacity, its growth rate will decrease and the size of the population will eventually become stable.
  7. Replacement Birth Rate
    The number of children a couple must have in order to replace themselves in a population.
  8. r-Selected
    Organisms that reproduce early in life and often and have a high capacity for reproductive growth.
  9. Density-Dependent Factors
    Food, space, disease
  10. Density-Independent Factors
    Fire, Earthquake, Storms.
  11. Factors of Birth Rate
    • Education of Women
    • Brith Control Availability
    • Culture, Religion, Beliefs
    • Demand for Child Labor
  12. Ecological Footprint
    Total Impact = population x affluence x technology level.
  13. Marine Mammal Protection Act
    • 1972
    • This act protected marine mammals from falling below their optimum sustainable pupulation levels.
  14. Endangered Species Act
    The act prohibited commerce of those species considered to be endangered or threatened.
  15. Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
    This agreement bans the capture, exportation, or sale of endangered and threatened species.
  16. Second Harvest
    A program that receives food from foods processors and distributors and redistributes it via food banks.
  17. Charity, Aid, Recovery, Empowerment Act (CARE Act)
    Supported food redistribution charities by allowing farmers, ranchers, and restaurant owners to deduct the cost of the foods they donate.
  18. Actual Growth Rate
    birth rate minus death rate divided by 10.
  19. Environmental Resistance
    Harsh living conditions that limit a population's growth rate.
  20. Stages of Demographic Transition
    • Pre-Industrial
    • Transitional
    • Industrial
    • Post-Industrial
  21. Land Partitioning Around the World
    • 12% Farms
    • 11% Timber Plots
    • 26% Grazing