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When trees and crops are planted together, creating a mutualistic symbiotic relationship between them.
- Smoldering fires that take place in bogs or swamps and can burn underground for days or weeks.
- Originating from surface fires, ground fires are difficult to detect and extinguish.
- Also called strip cropping.
- The practice of planting bands of different crops across a hillside.
Poor nutrition that results from an insufficient or poorly balanced diet.
Refers to when farmers plant seeds without using a plow to turn the soil.
Old Growth Forest
One that has never been cut; these forests have not been seriously disturbed for several hundred years.
Second Growth Forests
Areas where cutting has occurred and a new, younger forest has arisen.
The removal of select trees in an area; this leaves te majority of the habitat in place and has less of an impact on the ecosystem.
When mature trees are cut over a period of time (usually 10-20 years); his leaves mature trees, which can reseed the forest, in place.
The management of forest plantations for the purpose of harvesting timber.
Piles of gague, which is the waste material that results from mining.
Also known as plantations, these are planted and managed tracts of trees of the same age that are harvested for commercial use.
The broad category under which selective cutting and shelter-wood cutting fall; selective deforestation.
Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
- Law that requires the EPA to approve the use of all pesticides in the United States.
- Established a review of road-free areas of 5,000 acres or more and islands within the National Wildlife Refuges or the National Park System for inclusion in the National Preservation System.
- This act restricted activities in thses areas.
Wild and Scenic Rivers Act
- Established a National Wild and Scenic Rivers System for the protection of rivers for important scenic, recreational, fish and wildlife, and other values.
- Fires that burn only debris and shrubs on the ground.
- Actually beneficial, as it prevents accumulation of fuel, which prevents catastrophic fires.
The most threatening fires, as they are the hottest, widespread, and destructive of forest fires.
Originating from surface fires, these burn underground, usually in a bog or swamp, and are difficult to detect
Anadromous Fish Conservation Act
Protected fish that live in the sea but grow up and breed in fresh water.
Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act
Governed the conservation and management of ocean fishing.
Marine Mammal Protection Act
Established a federal responsibility to conserve marine mammals.
Endangered Species Act
Provided broad protection for species of fish, wildlife, and plants that are listed as threatened or endangered in teh U.S. or elsewhere.
CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species)
An international agreement between governments that ensured that international trade in specimens of wild animals and plants do not threaten their survival.
Governed prospecting and mining of minerals on publicly owned land.
Mineral Leasing Act
Permitted the Bureau of Land Management to grant leases for development of deposites of coal, phosphate, potash, sodium, sulphur, and other leasable minerals on public lands.
Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (Superfund)
Regulated damage done by mining.
Resource Conservation and Recovery Acts (RCRA)
Regulated some mineral processing wastes.
Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act
- Established a program for regulating surface coal mining and reclamation activities
- Established mandatory standards for these activities on state and federal lands, including a requirement that adverse impacts on fish, wildlife, and related environmental values be minimized.
- Discontinued use would result in the reduction of global food by 40%
- Can be dangerous contaminants if carried into runoff water.
- Reduces organic matter and oxygen in the soil.
- Expensive to manufacture and transport.
Irrigation of soil leaves salts in the soil after evaporation or uptake by plant roots.
Genetically Engineered Plants
- Ex. Golden Rice (Higher vit A and iron)
- Some produce their own nitrogen
- Some resist pests.
- some have higher salt tolerance.
- Only risk is their pollen may hybrid and push out native strains of crop species. (blue corn of mexico)
Engineering a plant to divert more of it's photosynthetic product from plant body biomass towards grain biomass.
- Created by small mariine animals called cnidarians which are involoved in photosynthetic relationships with zooxanthellae.
- Threatened by coral bleaching, which is the warming of coral waters, which kill zooxalanthellae.