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2011-04-30 19:21:21
AP Environmental Science

Princeton Review
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  1. Active Collection
    The use of devices, such as solar panels, to collect, focus, transport, or store energy.
  2. Anthracite
    The cleanest-burning coal; almost pure carbon.
  3. Bituminuos
    The second-purest form of coal.
  4. 1st Law of Thermodynamics
    Says that energy can neither be created nor destroyed.
  5. Fly Ash
    A waste product produced by the burning of coal.
  6. Hubbert Peak (Peak Oil)
    • An influential theory that concerns the long-term rate of conventional oil extraction and depletion.
    • It predicts that future world oil production will soon reach a peak and then rapidly decline.
  7. Lignite
    Least puure coal.
  8. Overburden
    The rocks and earth that are removed when mining for a commercially valuable mineral resource.
  9. Passive Solar Energy Collection
    The use of building materials, building placement, and design to passively collect solar energy that can be used to keep a building warm or cool.
  10. Petroleum
    A hydrocarbon that forms as sediments are buried and pressurized.
  11. Proven Reserve
    An estimate of the amount of fossil fuel that can be obtained from reserve.
  12. Scrubbers
    Devices containing alkaline substances that precipitate out much of the sulfur dioxide from industrial plants.
  13. 2nd Law of Thermodynamics
    • Says the the entropy of the universe is increasing.
    • One corollary is the concept that, in most energy transformations, a significant fraction of energy is lost to the universe as heat.
  14. Strip Mining
    Involves the removal of the earth's surface all the way down to the level of the mineral seam.
  15. Subbituminous
    The third purest form of coal.
  16. CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy)
    Sets mpg standards for trucks and cars.
  17. How a Generator Works
    A turbine is turned, it causes magnets in the generator to pass over copper coils, or vice versa, which creates a flow of electrons through the copper wire, and trasmitting that alternating current through lines.
  18. Acid Mine Drainage
    Abandoned metal and coal mines leach highly acididc water to surrounding areas.
  19. Mercury
    • Causes defects to fetus, kidey and liver damage.
    • Coal burning plants are the most responsible for mercury release, which is first airborne, then precipitate, which is taken up by fish.
  20. Vampire Appliances
    Appliances that still consume energy even after being turned off.
  21. Oil
    • Leaves little disturbance of the land.
    • High net energy.
    • Thick oil is partially melted before extraction
    • Pressure extraction is used when there is not enough natural pressure on the oil.
  22. Coal
    • Releases the most pollutants, but can be reduced by scrubbers.
    • Mercury pollution
    • Most abundant in U.S.
  23. Natural Gas
    • Burns relatively clean.
    • Can be liquefied and used as fuel.
    • Composed of methane.
  24. Boiler Reactor
    • Use heat of reactor core to boil water into steam, which is piped to the turbines, which spin to generate electricity.
    • The water is cooled back to a liquid using a heat exchanger which is pumped back to the core to be turned to steam again.
    • Two water circulations: 1 makes the steam, the other cools it in the core.
  25. Pressure Reactor
    • Core heat used to heat 2nd supply of water,tem which provides the steam to turn turbines.
    • A third circulation system uses a heat exchanger to cool the steam so it can be used again.
    • 3 Circulation systems: 1 to cool the core, 1 to make steam, 1 to cool steam into water.
  26. Gasohol
    • 90% gasoline, 10% ethanol.
    • Higher octane, burns more slowly, coolly, and completely.
    • Lesss polluting.
    • Low net energy, however.
    • Vaporizes more readily, which contributes to ozone in the troposphere.
  27. Hydroelectric
    • Produces thermal pollution, dams rivers, which may disrupt habitats.
    • Silting: sediments in teh water behind the dam settle to the bottom, which puts additional weight on the dam.
  28. Geothermal Energy
    • Uses Earth's internal heat to generate electricity.
    • Salts diddolved in teh water may corrode machinery parts.
    • Unwanted gases may be released.