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Besides anatomical adaptations, how else can mammals rapidly adjust to their niches?
enzyme in saliva which initiate digestion in the mouth...
improvements in the nervous system and elaboration of the brain create the potential for...
the two subclasses of mammals...
- Prototheria (egg-laying)
- Theria (pouched and placental)
the three major kinds of mammals...
monotremes or egg-laying mammals
prototherian mammals (subclass Prototheria)
platapus and echidna
prototherian (subclass Prototheria)
the "live-bearing" mammals including the marsupials and placental mammals.
therian mammals (subclass Theria)
...young are born at a relatively less developed stage than in placental mammals. After birth, the young attaches to a mammary gland in the pouch, where it continues to grow and develop.
marsupial (infraclass Metatheria, class Mammalia)
...mammal that forms a placenta...
- placantal mammal
- infraclass Eutheria
- class Mammalia
An organ that develops from fetal membranes that functions to pass oxygen, nutrients, and other substances to and waste from the fetus...
class is divided into...
subclass is divided into...
what is the name of the largest mammalian infraclass?
infraclass Eutheria (placantal mammals)
how many living orders of placantal mammals are there?
19 (pg. 129)
4 orders of the superorder Euarchontoglires?
- Dermoptera (colugos)
- Lagomorphs (rabbits, hairs)
- Scandentia (tree shrews)
living in trees...
How many distinct kinds of animals does to order Primates contain?
the three types of features...
- shared ancestral
- shared derived
- unique derived
the hypothesis posed to explain primate features emphasizes these three things...
- arboreal living
- grasping hands and feet
- enhancement of vision
possessing five digits on the hand and/or foot
Anatomical arrangement in which the fleshy tip of the thumb can touch the fleshy tip of all the fingers.
The pattern of ridges found on the hands and feet that form "fingerprint" patterns. These ridges are richely endowed with nerve endings that are associated with a refined sense of touch.
The tips of the fingers and toes of primates; areas richly endowed with tactile nerve endingssensitive to touch.
Referring to the senseof smell
two ancestral features of early placental mammals (of the forelimb structure) retained by primates...
- two bones in the lower arm (radius & ulna)
feature found in all primantes except H. sapiens...
grasping big toe
two reasons for epidermal ridges...
- traction (friction surface)
- high concentration of nerve endings
what kind of information can odor not portray?
the exact direction,witdth, and distance to the next branch...
two advantages of color vision...
- detail (different shades of green)
- stationary objects (such as fruit) stand out in a thre dimentional field
The layer of cells in the back of the eye that contains the cells,-rods and cones-that are sensitive to light.
Cells of the retina of the eye that are sensitive to the presence of absence of light, function on black and white vision.
Cells of the retina of the eye; each of the types is sensitive to a specific wavelangth of light, thereby producing color vision.
The central area of the retina consisting of cones only.
A depression within the macula of the retina of the eye that contains a single layer of cones with no overlapping blood vessel; regions of greatest visual acuity.
The visual field produced by the overlapping of the seperate visual fields from each eye when the eyes are located on the front or the face.
visual perception of depth due to overlapping visual fields and various neurological features
Why facial muscle differentiation and a detached upper lip?
Because primates communicate largly through visual stimuli.
The period of an individual's life cycle from conception to birth.
The period in an individual's life cycle from birth to the eruption of the first permanent teeth.
The period in an individual's life cycle that lasts from the eruption of the first to the eruption of the last permanent teeth.
The period in the live cycle after the eruption of the last permanent teeth.
The type of placenta found in most anthropoids in which materials pass between the maternal and fetal bloodstreams throuhg a single vessel wall.
The period of time from conception to birth.
gestation periods of human, chimp, impala, coyote
life span of human, chimp, impala, coyote
three factors in primate life that facilitate learning...
- life in large social units
- single births
- long childhood period
because the areas of the brain the control complex behavior patterns are well-developed in primates, this permits them a greater degree of...
9 (shared? pg.139) derived characteristics of primates
- grasping/opposable thumbs
- grasping big toe
- tactile pads
- reduced sense of smell
- enhanced visual sense
- hemochorial placenta
- prolonged stages of life
- increased intelligence
Primates, such as lemurs and lorises, that possess a rhinarium and philtrum.