Practice for Hockenbury psychology test Chapters 2 & 4
What is Autogenic Training?
Repeating a specific sequence of statements to induce deep relaxations.
What is stimulus control therapy?
Things like only using your bedroom for sleep and sex, only going to sleep when sleepy.
What is Marijuana?
A psychoactive drug made from hemp. A psychedelic drug also a stimulant.
What is ectasy?
Stimulant and psychedelic drug. Feelings of euphoria and increased well-being.
What are some dissociative Anesthetic Drugs?
phencyclidine(PCP) and ketamine(Special K)
Why is PCP highly addictive?
It affects the levels or the neurotransmitter glutamate
Psycheledelic literally means what?
What is Mescaline?
Psychedelic drug derived from peyote cactus
What is psilocybin?
Psychedelic drug also known as "shrooms"
What is LSD?
Psychedelic drug, synthetically made from psilocybin
A category of pf psychoactive drugs that create sensory and perceptual distortions, alter mood, and affect thinking.
What is an amphetamine?
A class of stimulant drugs that arouse the central nervous system and suppress appetite.
What is cocaine?
A stimulant drug derived from the coca tree
What are stimulants?
A category of psychoactive drugs that increase brain activity, arouse behavior, and increase mental alertness.
What is caffeine?
A stimlant drug found in coffee, tea, cola drinks, chocolate, and many over-the-counter medications.
What is nicotine?
An extremely addictive stimulant found in cigarettes.
What are depressants?
A category of psychoactive drugs that depress or inhibit brain activity.
What are some depressants?
Alcohol, Inhalants, Babiturates such as quaalude, tranquilizers such as Xanax & Valium, and opiates.
What are opiates?
A category of psychoactive drugs that are chemically similar to morphine and have strong pain-relieving properties.
What are inhalants?
Chemical substances that are inhaled to produce an alteration of consciousness.
What are barbiturates?
A category of depressant drugs that reduce anxiety and produce sleepiness.
What are tranquilizers?
Depressants drugs that relieve anxiety
What is drug abuse?
Recurrent drug use that results in disruptions in academic, social, or occupational functioning or in legal or psychological problems.
What are psychoactive drugs?
A drug that alters consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior,
What is drug tolerance?
A condition in which increasing amounts of a physically addictive drug are needed to produce the original, desired effect.
What is physical dependance?
A condition in which a person has physically adapted to the drug so that he or she must take the drug regularly in order to avoid withdrawal symptons.
What are withdrawal symptons?
Unpleasant physical reactions, combined with intense drug cravings, that occur when a person abstains from a drug on which he or she is physically dependant.
What is the drug rebound effect?
Withdrawal symptons that are the opposite of a physically addictive drug's action.
What is meditation?
Any one of a number of sustained concentration techniques that focus the attention and heighten awareness.
What is posthypnotic suggestion?
A suggestion made during hypnosis that the person should carry out a specific instruction following the hypnotic session.
What is posthypnotic amnesia?
The inability to recall specific information because of a hypnotic suggestion.
What is hypermnesia?
The supposed enhancement of a person's memory for past events through a hypnotic suggestion.
What is dissociation?
The splitting of consciousness into two or more simultaneous streams of mental activity.
What is the neodissocation theory of hypnosis?
Theory proposed by Ernest Hilgard that explains hypnotic effects as being due to the splitting f consciousness into two simulataneous streams of mental activity, only one of which the hypnotic participant is consciously aware of during hypnosis.
What is a hidden observer?
Hilgard's term for the hidden, or dissociated, stream of mental activit that continues during hypnosis.
What is hypnosis?
A cooperative social interactionin which the hypnotized person responds to the hypnotists suggestions with changes in perception, memory, and behavior
What is REM sleep behavior disorder?
A sleep disorder in which the sleeper verbally and physically responds to the dream story; the result of a failure of the brain mechanisms that normally suppress voluntary actions during REM sleep.
What is sleepwalking?
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of walking or performing other actions during stage 3 or stage 4 NREM sleep; also called somnambulism.
What is sleep-related eating disorder?
A sleep disorder in which the sleeper will sleepwalk and eat compulsively.
What is sleepsex?
A sleep disorder involving abnormal sexual behaviors and experiences during sleep; sexsomnia.
What are sleep terrors?
A sleep disturbance characterized by an episode of increase physiological arousal, intense fear and panic, frightening hallucinations, and no recall of the episode the next morning; typically occurs during stage 3 or stage 4 NREM sleep; also called night terrors.
What is naroclepsy?
A sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and brief lapses into sleep throughout the day.
What is cataplexy?
A sudden loss of voluntary muscle strength and control that is usually triggered by an intense emotion.
What are hypocretins?
A special class of neurotransmitters produced during the daytime to maintain a steady state of wakefulness.
What is obstructive sleep apnea?
A sleep disorder in the which the person repeatedly stops breathing during sleep.
What is insomnia?
A condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep.
What are sleep disorders?
Serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime functioning and cause subjective distress.
What is a dyssomnia?
Sleep disorders involving disruptions in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep.
What is a parasomnia?
A category of sleep disorders characterized by arousal or activation during sleep or sleep transitions; includes sleepwalking, night terrors, sleep bruxism, sleep-related eating disorder, and REM sleep behavior disorder.
Who is Sigmund Freud?
The founder of pyschoanalysis, thought that dreams are the "disguised fulfillments of repressed wishes.
What is the activation synthesis model of dreaming?
The theory that brain activity during sleep produces dream images(activation), which are combined by the brain into a dream story. Researchers J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley first proposed this in 1977.
What is a nightmare?
A frightening or unpleasant anxiety dream that occurs during REM sleep.
What is manifest content?
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the elements of a that are consciously eperienced and remembered by the dreamer.
What is latent content?
In Freud's psychoanalytic theory, the unconscious wishes, thoughts, and urges that are concealed in the manifest content of a dream.
What is memory consolidation?
The gradual process of converting a new memory, through the simple passage of time, into a long-term relatively permanent form.
What are episodic memories?
Memories of personally experienced events, formed in NREM slow-wave sleep.
What are procedural memories?
Involves learning a new skill or task until it can be performed automatically, seem to be consolidated in REM sleep and NREM sleep stage 2.
What is the restorative theory of sleep?
The view that sleep sleep and dreaming are essential to normal physical and mental functioning.
What is the adaptive theory of sleep?
The view that the unique sleep patterns of different animals evolved over time to help promote survival and enviromental adaption; also called the evolutionary theory of sleep.
What is sleep thinking?
Repetitive, bland, and uncreative ruminations about real-life events during sleep
What is a dream?
A storylike epsiode of unfolding mental imagery during sleep.
What is REM rebound?
A phenomenon in which a person who is deprived of REM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first opportunity to sleep uninterrupted.
What is sleep paralysis?
A temporary condition in which a person is unable to move upon awakening in the morning or during the night.
What are beta brain waves?
Brain wave pattern associated with alert wakefulness
What are alpha brain waves?
Brain-wave pattern associated with relaxed wakefulness and drowsiness.
What are hypnagogic hallucinations?
Vivid sensory phenomena that during the onset of sleep.
What are sleep spindles?
Short bursts of brain activity that characterize stage 2 NREM sleep.
What is a K complex?
Single but large high-voltage spike of brain activity that characterizes stage 2 NREM sleep.
Stage 3 NREM sleep
When delta brain waves represent more than 20% of total brain activity.
Stage 4 NREM sleep
When delta brain waves exceed 50% of total brain activity, delta waves eventually come to represent 100% of brain activity in this stage.
Is the combination of stage 3 and stage 4 NREM sleep in which it is sometimes referred.
What is an electroencepholograph?
An instrument that uses electrodes placed on the scalp to measure and record the brain's electrical activity.
What is an electroencephalogram?
The graphic record of brain activity produced by electroencephalograph.
What is REM sleep?
Type of sleep during which rapid eye movements (REM) and dreaming usually occur and voluntary muscle activity is suppressed; also called active sleep or paradoxical sleep.
What is NREM sleep?
Quiet, typically dreamless sleep in which rapid eye movements are absent; divided into four stages; also called quiet sleep.
What is circadian rhythm?
A cycle or rhythm that is roughly 24 hours long; the cyclical daily fluctuations in biological and pryschological processes.
What is the superchiasmatic nuclues(SCN)?
A cluster of neurons in the hypothalamus in the brain that governs the timing of circadian rhythms.
What is melatonin?
A hormone manufactured by the pineal glad that produces sleepiness.
Who is William James?
Described consciousness as a "stream" or "river"
What biological psychology?
Specialized branch of psychology that the studies the relationship between behavior and bodily processes and systems; also called biopsychology or psychobiology.
What is neuroscience?
The study of the nervous system, especially the brain.
What is a neuron?
Highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form; a nerve cell.
What are glial cells?
Support cells that assist neurons by providing structural support, nutrition, and removal of cell wastes; manufacture myelin.
What is a sensory neuron?
Type of neuron that conveys information to the brain from specialized receptor cells in sense organs and internal organs.
What is a motor neuron?
Type of neuron that signals muscles to relax or contract.
What is an interneuron?
Type of neuron that communicates information from one neuron to the next.
What is a cell body?
Processes nutrients and provides energy for the neuron to function; contains the cells nucleus; also called the soma.
What are dendrites?
Multiple short fibers that extend from the neuron's cell body and receive information from other neurons or from sensory receptor cells.
What is an axon?
The long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas.
What is a myelin sheath?
A white, fatty covering wrapped around the axons of some neurons that increase their communication speed.
What is an action potential?
A brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron.
What is a stimulus threshold?
The minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron.
What is a resting potential?
State in which a neuron is prepared to activate and communicate its message if it receives sufficient stimulation.
What is the "all-or-none law"?
The principle that either a neuron is sufficiently stimulated abd action potential occurs or a neuron is not sufficiently stimulated and action potential does not occur.
What is a synapse?
The point of communication between two neurons.
What is a synaptic gap?
The tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron.
What are axon terminals?
Branches at the end of the axon that contain tiny pouches, or sacs, called synaptic vesicles.
What are synaptic vesicles?
Tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters.
What are neurotransmitters?
Chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron.
What is a synaptic transmission?
The process through which neurotransmitters are released by one neuron, cross the synaptic gap, and affect the adjoining neurons
What is reuptake?
The process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by a presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again.
What is acetylcholine?
Neurotransmitter that causes muscle contraction and is involved in the memory function.
What is Dopamine?
Neurotransmitter involved in the regulation of body movement, thought processes, and rewarding sensations.
What is serotonin?
Neurotransmitter involved in sleep and emotions.
What is norepinephrine?
Neurotransmitter involved in learning and memory; also a hormone manufactured by adrenal glands.
What is GABA(gamma-aminobutyric acid)?
Neurotransmitter that usually communicates an inhibitory message.
What is an endorphin?
Neurotransmitter that regulate pain receptors.
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by what?
Progressive loss of memory and deterioration of intellectual functioning, have a severe depletion of several neurotransmitters in the brain, most notable acetylcholine.
Parkinson's disease is characterized by what?
Rigidity, muscle tremors, poor balance, and difficulty in initiating movements. Degeneration of the the neurons that produce dopamine cause this.
What is "Runner's High"?
A rush of euphoria that many people feel after sustained aerobic exercise. In the brain, endorphins bond to opioid receptors.
What is the nervous system?
The primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
What are nerves?
Bundles of neuron axons that carry information in the peripheral nervous system.
What is the Central Nervous System(CNS)?
Division of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord.
What are spinal reflexes?
Simple automatic behaviors that are processed in the spinal cord.
What is the peripheral nervous system?
Division of the nervous system that includes all the nerves lying outside the central nervous system.
What is the somatic nervous system?
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that communicates information to the central nervous system and carries motor messages from the central nervous system to the muscles.
What is autonomic nervous system?
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that regulates involuntary functions.
What is the sympathetic nervous system?
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that produces rapid physical arousal in response to perceived emergencies or threats.
What is the parasympathetic nervous system?
Branch of the autonomic nervous system that maintains normal bodily fuctions and conserve's the body's physical resources.
What is the endocrine system?
System of glands located throughout the body that hormones into the bloodstream.
What are hormones?
Chemical messengers secreted into the bloodstream primarily by endocrine glands.
What is the pituitary gland?
Endocrine gland attached to the base of the brain that secretes hormones that affect the function of other glands as well as hormones that act directly on physical processes.
What are the adrenal glands?
Pair of endocrine glands that involved in the human stress response.
What is the adrenal cortex?
The outer portion of the adrenal glands.
What is the adrenal medulla?
The inner portion of the adrenal glands; secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
What are gonads?
The endocrine glands that secrete hormones that regulates sexual characteristics and reproductive processes; ovaries in females and testes in males.
What is functional plasticity?
The brain's ability to shift functions from damaged to undamaged brain areas.
What is phrenology?
A discredited pseudoscientific theory of the brain that claimed that peronality characteristics, moral character, and intelligence could be determined by examining the bumps on a person's skull.
What is cortical localization?
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain; also called localization of function.
Who is the discoverer of the pseudoscience phrenology?
Franz Gall, a German physician and brain anatomist.
What is structural plasticity?
The brain's ability to change its physical structure in response to learning, active practice, or environmental influences.
What is neurogenesis?
The development of new neurons.
What is the brainstem?
A region of the brain made up of the hindbrain and midbrain.
What is the hindbrain?
A region at the base of the brain that contains several structures that regulate basic life functions.
What is the medulla?
A hindbrain structure that controls vital life functions such as breathing and circulation.
What is the pons?
A hindbrain structure that connects the medulla to the two sides of the cerebellum; helps coordinate and integrate movements on each side of the body.
What is the cerebellum?
A large, two-sided hindbrain structure at the back of the brain; responsible for muscle coordination maintaining posture and equilibrium.
What is reticular formation?
A network of nerve fibers located in the center of the medulla that helps regulate attention, arousal, and sleep; also called the reticular activating system.
What is the midbrain?
The middle and smallest brain region, involved in processing auditory and visual sensory information.
What is the substantia nigra?
An area of the midbrain that is involved in motor control and contains a large concentration of dopamine-producing neurons.
What is the forebrain?
The largest and most complex brain region, which contains centers for complex behaviors and mental processes; also called the cerebrum.
What is the cerebral cortex?
The wrinkled outer portion of the forbrain, which contains the most sophisticated brain centers.
What are cerebral hemispheres?
The nearly symmetrical left and right halves of the cerebral cortex.
What is the corpus callosum?
A thick band of axons that connects the two cerebral hemispheres and acts as a communication link between them.
What is the temporal lobe?
An area on each hemisphere of the the cerebral cortex near the temples that is primary receiving area for auditory information.
What is the occipital lobe?
An area at the back of each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex that is the primary receiving area for visual information.
What is the parietal lobe?
An area on each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex located above the temporal lobe the processes somatic sensations.
What is the frontal lobe?
The largest lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; processes voluntary muscle movements and is involved in thinking, planning, and emotional control.
What is the limbic system?
A group of forebrain structues that form a border around the brainstem and are involved in emotion, motivation, learning, and memory.
What is the hippocampus?
A forrbrain structure that that is a part of the limbic system involved in learning and forming new memories.
What is the thalamus?
A forebrain structure that processes sensory information for all senses, except smell, and relays it to the cerebral cortex.
What is the hypothalamus?
A peanut-sized forbrain structure that is a part of the limbic system and regulates behaviors related to survival, such as eating, drinking, and sexual activity.
What is the amygdala?
Almond-shaped cluster of neurons in the brains temporal lobe, involved in memory and emotional responses, especially fear.
What is cortical localization?
The notion that different functions are located or localized in different areas of the brain also called localization of function.
Who is Pierre Paul Broca?
Finding of Broca's area, lower left frontal lobe, known to play a crucial role in speech production.
Who is Karl Wernicke?
Finding of Wernicke's area, left temporal lobe. Patients had great difficulty understanding spoken or written communications. They could speak quickly and easily, but their speech sometimes made no sense.
What is a split-brain operation?
A surgical procedure that involves cutting the corpus callosum.
Who is Roger Sperry?
Used an apparatus, as seen in the video, to test the abilities of split-brain patients.