Core Concepts in health

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  1. Infectious Disease
    A disease that is communicable from one person to another; caused by invading microorganism such as bacteria and viruses.
  2. Chronic Disease
    A disease that devolops and continues over a long period of time: usually caused by a variety of factors, including lifestyle factors.
  3. Wellness
    optimal health and vitality, encomassing physical, emotional, intellectual, spiritual, interrpersonal and social, and evironmental well-being.
  4. Sex
    The Biological and Physiological characteristics that define men and women
  5. Gender
    The roles, behaviours, activities, and attributes that a given society consider appropriate for men and women.
  6. Genome
    The complete set of genetic material in an individual's cells.
  7. Gene
    The basic unit of heredety: a section of genetic material containing chemical instructions for making a particular protein.
  8. Target Behaviour
    An isolated behavior selected as the object of a behaviour change plan
  9. Self-efficacy
    The belief in ones ability to take action and perform a specific behaviour
  10. Locus of Control
    The figurative "place" a person deisnates as the source of responsibility for the events in his or her life.
  11. Stressor
    Any physical of psychological events of condition that produces stress.
  12. Stress Response
    The physical and emotianal changes associated with stress
  13. Stress
    The collective physiological and emotional responses to any stiulus that disturbs an indivuduals homeostatsis.
  14. autonomic nervous system
    The branch of the nervous system that controls basic body processes; consists of the sympathetic and parasympatehtic divisions.
  15. Parasympathetic Division
    A division of the autonomic nervous system that moderates the excitatory effect of the sympatheic division, slowing metabolism and restoring energy supplies.
  16. Sympathetic Division
    A division of the autonomic nervous system tht reacts to danger or other challenges by almost instantly accelerating body processes.
  17. Norepinephrine
    A neorotransmitter released by the sympathetic nervous system onto target tissues to increase their function in the face of increased activity; when released in the brain, it causes arousal (increased attention, awereness, and alertness: also called noradrenaline
  18. Endocrine System
    The system of glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream to influence metabolism and other body process.
  19. Hormone
    A chemical messenger produced in the body and transproted by the bloodstream to target cells or organs for specific regulation of their activities.
  20. Hypothalamus
    A part of the brain that activates, controls, and integrates the automic mechanisms, endocrine activities, and many body functions.
  21. Pituitary Gland
    The "Master gland" closely linked with the hypothalamus, that controls other endocrine glands and secretes hormones that regulate growth, maturation, and reproduction.
  22. Adrencorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
    A hormone, formed in the pituitary gland, that stiulates the outer layer of the adrenal gland to secrete its horones.
  23. Adrenal Glands
    Two glands, one lying atop each kidney, whose outer layer (cortex) produces steroid hormones such as cortisol and whose inner core (medulla) produces the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine.
  24. Cortisol
    A steroid hormone secreted by the cortex (outer layer) of the adrenal gland; also called hydrocortisone
  25. Epinephrine
    a hormone secreted by the medulla (inner core) of the edrenal gland that affects the functioning of organs involved in responding to a stressor; also called adrenaline.
  26. Endorphins
    Brain secretions that have pain-inhibiting effects.
  27. Fight-or-flight reaction
    A defense reaction that prepares an individual for conflict or escape by triggering hormonal, cardiovascular, metabolic, and other changes.
  28. Homeostasis
    A state of stability and consistency in an indivuduals physiological functioning.
  29. Somatic Nervous System
    The branch of the nervous system that governs motor functions and sensory information; largely under our consius control.
  30. Personality
    The sum of behavioral, cognitive, and emotional tendencies.
  31. Allostaic Load
    The long-term negative impact of the stress response on the body.
  32. General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
    A patter of stress responses consisting of three stages: alarmm, resistance, and exhaustion.
  33. Eustress
    Stress Resulting from a pleasant stressor.
  34. Distress
    Stress resulting from an unpleasant stressor.
  35. Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)
    The study of the interactions among the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems.
  36. Burnout
    A state of physical, mental, and emotinal exhaustion
  37. Relaxation Response
    A physiological state charaterized by a feeling of warmth and quet mental alertness
  38. Visualization
    A technique for promting relaxatin or improving performance that involves creating or re-creating vivid mental pictures of a plce or and experience; also called imagery
  39. Mediation
    a technique for queting the mind by focusing on a particular word, object (such as a candle flame) or process (such as breathing)
  40. Normality
    The psycological characteristics attributed to the majority of people in a population at a given time.
  41. Self-Actualization
    The highest level of growth in maslows hierarchy.
  42. Self-Concept
    The ideas, feelings, and perceptions one has about oneself; also called self-image.
  43. Self-esteem
    satistaction and confidence in oneself; the valuing of oneself as a person
  44. Autonomy
    Independence; the sense of being self-directed
  45. Other-directed
    Guided in behaviour by the values and expectations of others.
  46. Inner-directed
    Guided in behaviour by an inner set of rules and values
  47. Autenticity
  48. Defense Mechanism
    A mental mechanism for coping with conflict or anxiety
  49. Cognitive distortion
    A pattern of thinking that makes events seem worse than they are.
  50. Assertiveness
    Expression that is foreceful but not hostile.
  51. Anxiety
    A feeling of fear that is not directed toward any definite threat.
  52. Simple (specific) phobia
    A persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, activity, or situation.
  53. Social Phobia
    An excessive fear of performing in public; speaking in public is the most common example.
  54. Panic disorder
    A syndrome of severe anxiety attacts accompanied by shysical symptoms
  55. Agoraphobia
    An anxiety isorder characterized by fear of being alone away from help and avoidance of many diferent places and situations; in extreme cases, a fear of leaving home. From the greek for "fear fo the public market"
  56. Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)
    an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable worry about all kinds of things and anxiety in many situations.
  57. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
    An anxiety disorder characterized by uncontrollable, recurring thoughts an the performing of senselss rituals.
  58. Obsession
    A recurrent, irrationsl, unwanted thought or impulse.
  59. Compulsion
    an irrational, repetitive, forced action, usually associated with an obsession.
  60. Post-Trauatic stress disorder (PTSD)
    An anxiety disorder characterized by reliving traumatic events though dreams, flashbacks, and hallucinations.
  61. Depression
    A mood disorder characterized by loss of interest, dadness, hoplessness, loss of appetite, disurbed sleep, and other physical symptoms.
  62. Electroconvulsive Theraphy (ECT)
    The use of electric shock to induce brief, generalized seizures; used in the treatment of selected psychological disorder.
  63. Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)
    A mood disorder characterized by seasonal depression, usually occurring in winter, when there is less daylight.
  64. Mania
    A mood disorder characterized by excessive elation, irritability, talkativeness, inflated self-esteem, and expansiveness.
  65. Bipolar Disorder
    A Mental illness characterized by alternating periods of depression and mania
  66. Schizophrenia
    A Psychological disorde that involves a disturbance in thinking and in perciving reality.
  67. Placebo
    A chemically inactive substance that a patient believes is an effective medical therapy for his or her condition. To help evaluate a therapy, medical reserchers compre the effects of a particular therapy with the effects of a placebo. The "Placebo effect" occurs when a patient responds to a placebo as if it were an active drug.
  68. Gender Role
    A culturally expected pattern of behaviour and attitudes determined by whether a person is male or female.
  69. Attachement
    The emotional tie between an infant and his or her caregiver or between two people in an intimate relatitionship.
  70. Infatutation
    An idealizing, obsessive attraction, chracterized by a high degree of physical arousal.
  71. Cohabitation
    Living together in a sexual relationship without being married.
  72. Sexual Orientation
    A consistent pattern of emotianl and sexual attraction based on biological sex; it exists along a continuum that ranges from exclusive heterosezuality (attraction to people of the other sex) thourgh bisezuality (attractin to people of both sexes) to exlusive homosexuality (attaction to people of ones own sex)
  73. Homosexual
    Emotional and sexual attaction to people of ones own sex.
  74. Heterosexual
    Emotional and sexual attraction to people of the other sex.
  75. Sexuality
    A dimension of peronality shaped by biological, psychosocial, and cultural forces and concerning all aspects of sexual behavior.
  76. Gonads
    The primary reproductive organs that produce germ cells and sex hormones; the ovaries and testes.
  77. Germ Cells
    sperm and ova (eggs)
  78. Vulva
    the external female genitals, or sex organs.
  79. Clitoris
    The highly sensitive female genital structure.
  80. Vagina
    The passage leading from the female genitals to the internal reprodutive organs; the birth canal.
  81. Cervix
    The end of the uterus opening towards the vagina.
  82. Uterus
    The hollow, thick-walled, muscular organ in which the fertilized egg develops; the womb
  83. Ovary
    One of two female reproductive glands that produce ova (eggs) and sex hormones; ovaries are the female gonads.
  84. Penis
    The male genital structure consisting of spongy tissue that becomes engorged with blood during sexual excitement.
  85. Scrotum
    the loose sac of skin and muscle fibers that contians the testes.
  86. Testis
    One of two male gonads, the site of sperm production; plural, testes. Also called testicles
  87. Glands
    The rounded head of the penis or the clitoris.
  88. Circumcision
    Surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis.
  89. Endocrine Glands
    Glands that produce hormones.
  90. Estrogens
    Male sex hormones produced by the testes in males and by the adrenal glands in both sexes.
  91. Estrogens
    A class of female sex hormones, produced by the ovaries, that bring about sexual maturation at puberty and maintain reproductive functions.
  92. Progestins
    A class of female sex hormones, produced by the ovaries, that sustain reproductive functions.
  93. Adrenal Glands
    Endocrine glands, located over the kidneys, that produce androgens (among other hormones)
  94. Pituitary Gland
    An endocrine gland at the base of the brain that produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), among others.
  95. Hypothalamus
    A region of the brain above the pituitary gland whose hormones control the secretions of the pituitary; also involved in the nervours control of sexual functions.
  96. Puberty
    The period of biological maturation during adolescence.
  97. Testosterone
    The most important androgen (male sex hormone); stimulates an embryo to develop into a male and induces the development of male secondary sex characteristics during puberty.
  98. Progesterone
    The most important progestin (female sex hormone); induces the development of female secondary sex characteristics dueing puberty, regulates the menstrual cyle, and sustains pregnancy.
  99. Menstrual Cycle
    The monthly ovarian cycle, regulated by pituitary and ovarian hormones, in the absence of pregnancy, menstruation occurs.
  100. Corpus luteum
    The part of the ovarian follicle left after ovulation, wich secretes estrogen and progresterone during the second half of the menstrual cycle.
  101. Premenstrual Tension
    Mild physical and emotional changes ascociated iwth the time before the onset of menses; symptoms can include abdominal cramping and backache.
  102. Premensrual Syndrom (PMS)
    A disorder characterized by physical discomfort, spychological distress, and behavioral changes that begin after ovulation and cease when menstruation begins.
  103. Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)
    Severe form of PMS, characterized by symptoms serious enough to interfere with work or school or with social activities and relationships
  104. Menopause
    The Cessation of menstruation, occuring gradually around age 50.
  105. Erogenous Zone
    Any region of the body highly responsive to sexual stimulation.
  106. Vasocongestion
    The accumulation of blood in tissues and organs.
  107. Myotonia
    Increased muscular tension
  108. Orgasm
    The discharge of accumulated sexual tension with characteristic genital and bodily manifestations and a sujective sensation of intense pleasure.
  109. Semen
    Seminal fluid, consisting of sperm cells and secretions from the prostate gland and seminal vesicles.
  110. Sexual Dysfunction
    A disturbance in sexual desire, performance, or satisfaction.
  111. Maturbation
    Self-Stimulation for the purpose of sexual arousal and orgasm
  112. Celibacy
    Continous abstention from sexual activity.
  113. Autoeroticism
    Behaviour aimed at sexual sef-stimulation
  114. Erotic Fantasy
    Sexually arousing thoughts and daydreams
  115. Cunnilingus
    Oral stimulation of the female genitals
  116. Fellatio
    Oral stiulation of the penis.
  117. Sexual Intercourse
    Sexual relations involving genital union; also called coitus, and also know as making love.
  118. Conception
    The susion of ovum and sperm, resulting ina a fertilized egg.
  119. Fertilization
    The initiation of biological reproduction; the union of the nucleus of an egfg cell with the nucleus of a sperm cell.
  120. Ovary
    One of the two female reproductive organs that produce ova (eggs) and sex hormones.
  121. Follicle
    One of many saclike structures within the ovary in wich eggs mature
  122. Oviduct (Follopian Tube)
    one of two passages through which eggs travel from the ovaries to the uterus; the site of fertilization
  123. uterus
    The hallow, thick-walled, muscular organ in which the fertilixed egg develops; the womb
  124. Endometrium
    Themucous membrane that forms the inner lining of the cavity of the uterus.
  125. Fertilized egg
    The egg after penetration by a sperm; a zygote.
  126. Testis
    One of two male reproductive organs; the testes are the site of sperm production.
  127. Fraternal Twins
    Twins who develop from seperate fertilized eggs; not genetically identical.
  128. Identical Twins
    Twins who develop from the division of a singl zygote; genetically identical.
  129. Infertility
    The inability to conceive after trying for a year or more
  130. Cloning
    Asexual reproduction in which offspring are genetically identical to one parent. DNA from the cell of one animal is transferred to an egg form which DNA has been removed; the egg is then placed in a surrogate and develops as though it were and embryo derived from thwo parents.
  131. Trimester
    One of the three 3-month periods of pregnancy
  132. Fetus
    The developmental stae of a human from the 9th week after conception to the moment of birth.
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