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- Elimintion- Waste and drug metabolites and urine.
- Maintain acid/ base balance
- Regulation of blood pressure
- 1. Renin
- 2. Angiotensin
- Maintain fluid balance
The Nephron regulates the amount of water, electrolytes (minerals) and acidity in your body.
Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
- 60% Urination
- 28% Exhaled
- 8% Perspired
- 4% Fecal
Insensible water loss cannot be measured accurately.
- Diuresis- Less than 3 ml per min or
- Less than 4.5 liters per day.
Kidneys filter 180 liters of fluid per day.
(Increase the low of Urine)
- Potassium Sparing
Used to promote excretion of water- Edema (LOWERS BLOOD PRESSURE)
Side effects: Hypokalemia- Potassium defficiency.
More rapid and efective than Thiazides
Used for: Congestive heart failure (CHF), Pulmonary Edema (Fluid in the lungs)
Cautions: Sulfa allergy, Diabetes
- Furosemide (Lasix)
- bumetadine (Burmex)
Potassium Sparrring Agents
Used: When uncontrolled loss of potassium is expected.
Side Effects: Hyperkalemia, gynecomastia.
Draw water into the tubule by increasing he salt content in the tubule.
Uses: Reduces intracranial pressure, intraocular pressure VERY USEFUL IN HEAD INJURIES
Cautions: Heart failure and kidney failure.
Anti inflamatory disease in ehich crystals of uric acid deposit in a joint. Usualy at the big toe. (75%)
May be acute or chronic
Midications for GOUT
Anti inflamatory agents for acute attacks
Uricosuric agents- Cause excretion of uric acid, For chronic recurrment attacks
Antispasmodic Bladder Agents
Reduce strenght and frequency of bladder contractions. (a parasympathetic response)
Block parasympathetic receptors in the bladder.
Newer synthetic antichlolinergics affect the bladder muscles tone w side effects.
- tolterodine (Detrol)
- oxybutinin (Ditropan)
SE's Dry mouth, nausea, tachycardia
- Relieves burning & pain from cystitis (urinary tract infection)
- Treats only the symptoms of pain
- SE: orange urine
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
- Abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland.
- Occurs in most men over 55
- Important to rule out cancer
- finasteridde (Proscar)
- SE's: Erectile dysfunction, gynecomastia
- Tamsulosin (FLomax) alpha blocking agent.
- SE's: May cause low blood pressure.
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