PHAR 100

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  1. Kidney Functions
    • Elimintion- Waste and drug metabolites and urine.
    • Maintain acid/ base balance
    • Regulation of blood pressure
    • 1. Renin
    • 2. Angiotensin
    • Maintain fluid balance
  2. The Nephron
    The Nephron regulates the amount of water, electrolytes (minerals) and acidity in your body.
  3. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance
    Water Elimination
    • 60% Urination
    • 28% Exhaled
    • 8% Perspired
    • 4% Fecal

    Insensible water loss cannot be measured accurately.
  4. Diuretics
    • Diuresis- Less than 3 ml per min or
    • Less than 4.5 liters per day.

    Kidneys filter 180 liters of fluid per day.
  5. Diuretics
    (Increase the low of Urine)
    • Thiazade
    • Loop
    • Potassium Sparing
    • Osmotic
  6. Thiazide Diuretics
    Used to promote excretion of water- Edema (LOWERS BLOOD PRESSURE)

    Side effects: Hypokalemia- Potassium defficiency.
  7. Loop Diuretics
    More rapid and efective than Thiazides

    Used for: Congestive heart failure (CHF), Pulmonary Edema (Fluid in the lungs)

    Cautions: Sulfa allergy, Diabetes

    • Furosemide (Lasix)
    • bumetadine (Burmex)
  8. Potassium Sparrring Agents
    Used: When uncontrolled loss of potassium is expected.

    Side Effects: Hyperkalemia, gynecomastia.

    spironoclatone (Aldactone)
  9. Osmotic Diuretics
    Draw water into the tubule by increasing he salt content in the tubule.

    Uses: Reduces intracranial pressure, intraocular pressure VERY USEFUL IN HEAD INJURIES

    Cautions: Heart failure and kidney failure.
  10. GOUT
    Anti inflamatory disease in ehich crystals of uric acid deposit in a joint. Usualy at the big toe. (75%)

    May be acute or chronic
  11. Midications for GOUT
    Anti inflamatory agents for acute attacks

    Uricosuric agents- Cause excretion of uric acid, For chronic recurrment attacks

    allopurinol (Zyloprim)
  12. Antispasmodic Bladder Agents
    Reduce strenght and frequency of bladder contractions. (a parasympathetic response)

    Uses: Incontinence
  13. Antispasmodic Agents
    Antichlolinergic affects
    Block parasympathetic receptors in the bladder.

    Newer synthetic antichlolinergics affect the bladder muscles tone w side effects.

    • tolterodine (Detrol)
    • oxybutinin (Ditropan)

    SE's Dry mouth, nausea, tachycardia
  14. Urinary analgesics
    • Relieves burning & pain from cystitis (urinary tract infection)
    • Treats only the symptoms of pain
    • SE: orange urine

    phenazopyridine (Pyridium)
  15. Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
    • Abnormal enlargement of the prostate gland.
    • Occurs in most men over 55
    • Important to rule out cancer
  16. Beningprostatic Hypertrophy
    • finasteridde (Proscar)
    • SE's: Erectile dysfunction, gynecomastia

    • Tamsulosin (FLomax) alpha blocking agent.
    • SE's: May cause low blood pressure.
Card Set:
PHAR 100
2011-04-21 04:18:47


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