Anatomy Ch 28
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Functions of the reproductive system:
- 1. produce gametes
- 2. reproduction - produce a human by fertilization of a female gamete (egg) by a male gamete (sperm)
Describe mitosis (asexual cell reproduction).
1 cell splits into 2 identical
- Stages of Mitosis
- Prophase = mitotic spindle forms
- Metaphase = chromotids line up on equator
- Anaphase = sisters separate (egg shaped)
- Telophase = nuclear envelope reforming
Describe meiosis - sexual cell reproduction
- 1 2n (46 chromosomes) cell results in 4 n cells (23)
- 3 of which are polar bodies
- Stages of Meiosis:
- Meiosis I
- Prophase I - Homologous (sister) chromotids pair up and cross over (transposition) - genetic variability
- Metaphase I - Homologous pairs of chromotids line up at equator
- Anaphase I - Sister chromotids pulled towards poles - could be chromosome from mom or dad - Independent Assortment - genetic variability
- Telophase I
- Cytokinesis - two haploid cells - 23 sister chromotids in each cell
- Meitosis II
- Prophase II - spindles reform and attach to the sister chromotids
- Metaphase II - sister chromotids line up on equator
- Anaphase II - sister chromotids separate and move toward poles
- Telophase II -
- Cytokinesis - results in 4 haploid cells
What is the eukaryotic cell cycle?
Process by which cell reproduce - results in 2 identical cells.
- Cell Cycle:
- Interphase (cell is preparing to divide -consists of G1, S ,G2)
- G1 = growth (in size)
- S = synthesis ( DNA is replicated)
- G2 = growth
- Mitosis = separation of chromosomes (in preparation for division)
- Cytokinesis = cell division
- G0 = a cell can leave the cell cycle and enter G0 - it can stay there or reenter the cell cycle in the future (nerve cells enter G0 and dont divide)
What is a zygote?
Is it a single cell?
Does this cell thereafter reproduce asexually?
Zygote = single cell that results from fertilization of an egg cell with a sperm cell.
Grows into a human through mitotic cell divison (asexual reproduction) and cellular differentiation (ability of cells to specialize - become different kinds of cells)
All somatic cells have the exact same 46 chromosomes (23 homologous pairs) with the same DNA
All gametes have only 23 chromosomes and all are different due to crossing over and indendent assortment.
How many chromosomes in a somatic cell?
How many homologous pairs?
What is a homologous pair?
- Somatic cell (diploid - 2n) 46 chromosomes- 23 homologous pairs
- Homologous pairs = chromosomes pairs that code for the same proteins - one from mother and one from father
- Gametes (haploid = n) 23 chromosomes
- produced by meiotic cell division
- Fertilization - egg( 23) + sperm (23) will give zygote a full 46 chromosomes
What's the difference between a haploid & diploid cell?
Haploid (n) - 23 chromosomes - gamates - eggs & sperm
Diploid (2n) - 24 chromosomes - 23 homologous pairs - all cells in body (except sex cells)
Name the male:
accessory sex glands
= testes (testicles) - make sperm & hormones (testosterone)
- a. epididymus
- b. vas deferens
- c. ejaculatory duct
- d. urethra
= scrotum, penis
- accessory sex glands
- a. seminal vesicles
- b. prostate gland
- c. bulbourethral gland
What is the purpose of the scrotum?
- Regulate the temp of sperm below core body temp
- sperm prefer 96 oF.
- Raphae - median ridge of scrotum (external)
- Scrotal septum - divides scrotum into two sacs (internal)
What do testicles do when the temp outside is cold?
- Sperm works best at 96oF
- When cold out the Cremaster & Dartos muscle contract and move the testicles closer to the body (heat)
When hot out the cremaster & dartos muscles relax and allow testes to move away from body (allow for lower temperature)
What are the cremaster & dartos muscles?
Cremaster muscle (skeletal muscle) - elevates teates
Dartos muscle (smooth muscle) - tightens scrotum
both respond to heat (relaxation) & cold (contraction)
Basic anatomy of the penis
- 1. tunic (albuginea) - outermost layer - CT under the skin
- 2. corpus cavernosum (2 larger cylinders) - venous sinuses -erectile tissue
- 3. corpus spongiosum - (smaller cylinder) - contains urethra surrouded by erectile tissue
- Root - proximal attachment
- 1. crus - bast of cavernosa
- 2. bulb - base of spongiosa
- both attached to perineal skelatal muscles
Basic anatomy of testicle
How does the tunica vaginalis form?
1. tunica vaginalis - loose CT (serous) surrounding outside of testicle - hydrocele when filled with fluid
- 2. tunica albuginea - dense CT - surrounds testicle & forms septa
- - evagination of septa → divide testes into 300 lobules
- 3. seminiferous tubules - 2 in each lobule (spaghetti like) - where spermatogenesis takes place
- two cell types:
- a. spermatogenic cells - make sperm
- b. sertoli cells - support sperm
Leydig cells - make testosterone - located around seminiferous tubules
rete testis - all seminiferous tubules unite & drain into the rete testis
- Tunica vaginalis forms from peritoneum as testicle descends from inguinal canal
- - testes develop near kidney (retroperitoneal) and travel down inguinal canal at 7 months gestation
Hydrocele - when the Spermatic cord and tunica vaginalis fill with fluid - like a water ballon
Varicocele - vericose veins - veins in the spermatic cord are enlarged (swollen) - caused by incompetent valves or venous obstruction (tumor).
What is spermatogenesis?
- Spermatogenesis = The production of sperm- occurs in the seminiferous tubules- begins at puberty
- -takes 70 days (~2 months)
Spermiogenesis is the process by which a spermatid (haploid) transforms into a spermatozoa (mature sperm cell). Spermiogenesis starts in the testes and ends in the epididymis - Maturation in the epididymis takes two weeks.
Name the cells from germ cell to mature sperm cell in spermatogenesis
- 1. Germ cell - primordial stem cell (diploid) -differentiate into spermatogonia in utero
- 2. Spermatoginia - emain dormant until puberty - diploid cell - attached to basement membrane of seminifierous tubules
- - undergo mitosis - duplicate cells lose contact with basement membrane & squeeze through blood-testis barrier
- - differentiate into primary spermatocytes
3. Primary spermatocytes - diploid cells - undergoes Meiosis I - results in 2 haploid cells (with attached sister chromotids) called Seconday spermatocytes
4. Secondary spermatocytes - haploid cells (with 23 sister chromotids) that enter Meiosis II → 4 haploid cells called spermatids
5. Spermatids -4 haploid cells that undergo spermiogenesis → transforms into long slender shape and becomes a spermatazoa (sperm cell) - spermiogenesis starts in the testes and ends in the epididymis - Maturation in the epididymis takes two weeks.
6. Spermatazoa = mature sperm cell
Are sertoli cells within or around the seminiferous tubule?
What is the blood/ testes barrier?
What is inhibin & where does it work?
Sertoli cells - Embedded among the spermatogenic cells in the seminiferous tubules - they extend from the basement membrane to the lumen of the tubule -
- - blood/ testes barrier
- - support sperm production
- - spermatogenesis occurs in them
- - release mature sperm into seminferous tubule lumen
- - secrete inhibin
- - provide fluid for transport
Inhibin - secreted by sertoli cells - released if lots of sperm - negative feedback to hypothalamus→ less FSH from pituitary = less spermatogenesis
What is the primary male androgen?
What are the functions of testosterone?
What are primary and secondary male sexual characteristics.
Testosterone - made in the Leydig cells (clusters of cells in the lobules around the seminiferous tubules). Steroid hormone - fat soluble
- -Primary and Seconday sexual characterisits
- - anabolic - increses bone/ muscle growth
- Primary sexual characteristics: penis & testicles
- Secondary: deep voice, broad sholders, hair on chest, etc.
LH from anterior pituitary stimulates the leydig cells to secrete testosterone
Draw a sperm cell
What does the acrosome do?
Where is ATP made and why?
How long to sperm survive?
Acrosome - at the tip of the head and conteins enzymes that penetrate the egg
Midpiece or body of the sperm - contains many mitochondria for ATP production - sperm needs energy to swim to fillopian tubes.
- Spermatogenesis - 3 months
- Spermiogenesis - 2 weeks
- Sperm can survive two days after entry to female
Draw a picture showing the realtionship between:
GnRH, LH, FSH
- GnRh - Gonadotropic releasing hormone - made by hypothalamus - acts on anterior pituitary to secrete 2 gonadotropins:
- - LH = leuteining hormone
- - FSH = follicle stimulating hormone
- LH → Leydig cell→ testosterone
- FSH → seminiferous tubule → sperm formation
- controlled by negative feedback system:
- ↑ testosterone → hypothalamus/ pituitary → ↓GnHR/ LH
- ↑ sperm →inhibin (sertoli cell)→ pituitary→ ↓ FSH
What is semen composed of?
- -sperm + seminal fluid
- 5% + 95% secretions
- -Contains nutrient for sperm - fructose for ATP production & antimicrobial agents
- - Semen is very basic - neutralized acidity of male urethra & vagina
- - Contains enzymes that activate the sperm to swim
- Seminal fluid = secretions from sertoli cells & epididymis, form accessory male sex glands -
- - seminal vesicles (2)
- - prostate gland
- - bulbourethral glands (2)
Draw the sequence of ducts sperm travles through before it reaches the urethra
What are the ducts of the male reproductive system?
- Epididymis (2) - cap on testicles
- - sperm matures here for 2 weeks
- - stores sperm (months)
- - long tube coiled up (20 ft)
- - dead sperm reabsorbed
- Vas deferens (2)- 1.5 ft stores sperm
- - enters ejaculatory duct distally
- - passes from epididymis through inguinal canal
- Ejaculatory duct - semen forms
- - vas deferens & seminal vesicle meet
- - above the prostate
- Urethra - 3 parts
- - prostatic
- - membranous (perineal muscles)
- - penile (spongy urethra)
How does sperm get from testicle to urethra?
seminiferous tubules → rete testi → epididymis→ vas deferens → ejaculatory duct → prostatic urethra→ urethra
sprem does not swim in the male - pushed through the duct system by peristalsis
Where is a vasectomy performed?
Incision on the scrotum - Vas deferens is cut & tied (ligated)
Where is semen made?
Semen is mixed in the ejaculatory ducts where the vas deferens and the seminal vesicle join
What is the spermatic cord?
What is its purpose?
Spermatic cord (2) is a protective structure that surrounds ducts, nerves, blood & lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle.
- - it passes through the inguinal canal - it formed that way
- - it continues into the tunica vaginalis around the testicle
Hydrocele - spermatic cord fills up with fluid - water baloon
Varicocele - vericose veins (veins swell) caused by incompetent venous valves or venous obstruciton (tumor)
Name the accessory sex glands.
Which gland activates sperm to swim?
Why does seminal fluid contain fructose & PGs?
What are Cowper's glands and their function?
- 1. Seminal vesicles - two at the base of the bladder - above the prostate
- - secrete alkaline fluid (60% of semen volume)
- - - fructose (sperm to make ATP)
- - - PG's (for sperm motility)
- - - Clotting factors (coagulation)
- 2. Prostate - (1) golf ball size - below the bladder - surrounds urethra - activates sperm to swim
- - secretion is milky, slightly acidic (25% vol)
- - cirtic acid - for sperm ATP production
- - proteolytic enzyme - enventually will break down clotting factos from seminal fluid
- - plasmin - kills bacteria
- 3. Bulbourethral glands (2) - Cowper's gland
- - at the base of the penis
- - secretes alkaline fluid neutralize pH of urethra and lubricate urethra to lower sperm damage from abrasion
What are the structures and functions of the female reproductive system?
- secrete eggs & hormones
- 2. Fallopian tubes - transport
- - site of fertilization
- 3. Uterus - implantation
- - development of fetus
- intercourse - passageway
5. Mammary glands
- lactation (produce, secrete, eject milk)
What hormones do the ovaries make?
Draw the uterus, ovaries & fallopian tubes.
What are the ligaments of the ovaries?
1. Broad ligaments - attaches ovary to perietal peritoneum (inferior)
2. ovarian ligaments - ovaries to uterus (medial)
3, suspensory ligaments - ovary to pelvic wall (lateral)
4. Mesovarium - part of broad ligament - fallopian tubes to ovarian ligaments
What are the 4 layes of the ovary?
Draw a picture and label them.
1. germinal epithelium - outermost
2. tunica albuginea - dense CT
- 3. Cortex - site of oogenesis - contains ovarian follicles
- - made of CT/ scattered smooth muscle
4. Medulla - loose CT - innermost layer
What is the granulosa cell?
What is their purpose?
What hormoes does it make?
What type of egg is meleased @ ovulation?
- Granulosa cells make up the ovarian follicles.
- They contain eggs in various states of development & secrete follicular fluid to nourish the eggs.
Granulosa cell makes estrogen
Mature follicle is released at ovulation - it is a secondary oocyte that will mature when it is fertilized.
When does oogenesis begin?
How many germinal cells are you born with?
How many exist to potentially mature @ puberty?
Stages of develpment and are the cells diploid or haploid?
What is a polar body?
What happens at menopause?
- oogenesis = formation of eggs in the ovary
- oogenesis begins in utero - about 2 mil oogina/ ovary
~ 40,000 primary oocytes exist at puberty
~ 400 secondary oocytes will ovulate in lifetime
- oogonia - dipliod (stem cells)
- primary oocyte - diploid + Meiosis I =
- secondary oocyte -haploid w/ sis cromotids +Meiosis II=
- ovum - mature fertilized egg - diploid
= cessation of ovarian function - atresia
= remaining eggs degenerate
When ovulation occurs is the egg intraabdominal for a moment? What catches it?
How long does it take the fertilized egg to reach the uterus?
Does ovualtion occur in both ovaries?
When the follicle ruptures the egg is intrabdominal for a moment but it is caught by the infundibulum of the fallopian tube which have fimbriae to catch & sweep the egg into the tube.
It takes 1 week for the zygote to travel to the uterus & implant
Ovulation each month occurs in one ovary of the other but usually not both at the same time.
List the funcitons of the uterus.
What are the parts of the uterus?
- 1. pathway for sperm to the fallopian tubes
- 2. site of implantation and fetal development
- 3. labor and delivery
- 4. source of menstral flow
- cervix (neck) - 3 parts
- - - external os (vagina)
- - - cervical canal (between two ora)
- - - internal os (os = opening or mouth) to uterus
- isthmus (between cervix & body)
- uterine cavity (inside)
Name the 3 layers of the uterus?
- 1. perimetrium = serosa -visceral peritoneum - outer layer
- - continues into two pouches - recto-uterine (pouch of douglas) and vesico-uterine (bladder)
- 2. Myometrium = 3 layers smooth muscle - thick
- - thickest at fundus - thinest at cervix
- - oxytocin acts on this layer and increases contractions during labor (force & frequency)
- 3. Endometrium - inner lining - extremely vascualar- 2 layers
- a. basilis - deep layer - gives rise to new functionalis each month
- b. functionalis - superficial - develops & bleeds out every month
What is the arterial blood supply to the uterus?
What is caval compression & when does it occur?
- Internal iliac arteries → uterine arteries → arcurate arteries (myometrial)→ radial arteries (myometrium to endometrium) → Arterioles (two types)
- 1. straight = basilis
- 2. sprial = functionalis
- Venous return
- Capillaries → uterine veins → internal iliac vein → IVC
Caval compression is when the IVC is being compressed during the 3rd trimester of pregnancy (mother lays on back = IVC compression)
Parts and Layers of the fallopian tubes
Parts - uterus → isthmus → ampulla→ infundibulum → ovary
- isthmus - opens to the uterus
- ampulla - site of fertilization
- infundibulum - end of tube that catches egg - contains fimbrae that catch egg
- 1. Mucosal layer - cilliated - beats egg forward
- 2. muscularis - peristalsis moves egg
- 3. serosa - outer cover - serous membrane
takes 1 week for fertilized egg to reach uterus
What is the pH of the vagina?
What is an imperforate hymen?
Where is the vagina attached? What layer does this?
pH of the vagina is acidic - mucusa contains large stores of glycogen - breaks down & produces acidic enviroment to retard microbial growth
An imperforate hymen completely covers the vaginal orafice & must be surgically opened to allow menstral flow
- 1. mucosa - produces lactic acid
- 2. muscularis - smooth muscle
- 3. adventitia - outer layer - anchors vagina to bladder anteriorly and rectum posteriorly
What is the vulva?
What are the skenes glands?
The Bartholin's glands?
female external genitalia
- 1. mons pubis - "pubic mountain" cushions the pubic bone symphysis
- 2. labia majorum - outer skin covering (pubic hair)
- 3. labia minorum - inner skin covering
- 4. clitorus = erectile
- 5. vestibule - labia minorum to the vaginal oriface
- 6. Bartholin's glands (2) one on each side of vaginal orafiface - lubricant
- 7. Skene's glands - (2) one on each side of urethra - secretes mucus
What are the 2 triangles of the perineum?
What are perineal muscles?
- The perineum is a diamond shaped region
- Anterior = pubic symphasis
- Posterior = coccyx
- lateral = ischial tuberosity (r & l)
- Line drawn to connect the ischial tuberosities will result in 2 triangles
- urogenital triange - anterior - external genitals
- anal triangle - posteror - contains anus
What is lactation?
Structures of the breast.
How many mammary glands do you have?
What hormones affect mammary glands?
What stimulates milk release?
- Lactation =
- 1. synthesis
- 2. secretion
- 3. ejection
- Each breast has 1 mammary gland →
- gland contains 20 lobules (grape-like clusters that contain alveoli) →
- drain into lactiferous sinuses (storage)→
- lactiferous ducts →
- milk ejection
Breast milk contians IgA
- oxytocin → release of mik - stimulated by sucking
- prolactin → production of milk
Name all of the hormones involved in the ovarian cycle.
- 1. GnRH - Gonadotropic Releasing Hormone
- - secreted by hypothalamus
- - stimulates anterior pituitary to release FSH & LH
- 2. FSH - Follicle Stimulating Hormone
- - stimulates the follicle to grow/ develop from primary oocyte to secondary oocyte
- - granulosa cells in the follicle produce estrogens, inhibins, and relaxin
3. LH - triggers ovulation at mid-cycle (day 14) and ruptured follicle turns into corpus luteum - corpus luteum makes progesterone, estragon, inhibin, relaxin
- 4. Estrogen - made by follicle & corpus luteum
- - prepares uterus for zygote - increases indometrial growth for fetus
- - Negative feedback sys: ↑ estrogen → ↓ GnRH → ↓ FSH & LH
- - Positve Feedback: ↑ GnRH → ↑ LH → ovulation
- 5. progesterone - made by corpus luteum
- - hormone of pregnancy
- - maintains uterine lining
- - prepares mammary glands for milk production
- - ↑ progesterone → ↓ GnRH & LH
6. Inhibin - negative feedback to pituitary → ↓ FSH & ↓ LH
7. Relaxin - relaxes uterine muscles for implantation & relaxes pubic symphasis
What is the purpose of the ovarian cycle?
The Uterine Cycle?
Female reproductive cycle - 28 days
- 1. Ovarian cycle - produces secondary oocyte
- - makes progesterone, estragen, inhibin, relaxin
2. Uterine cycle - prepares uterus for implantation & development of the fetus (endometrial layer)
Which hormone is a relaxing hormone?
Tropic hormones? What does tropic mean?
Which cells to FSH and LH work on in females?
Relaxin - relaxes uterus for implantation & relaxes pubic symphasis
- GnRH - Tropic = a hormone that stimulates the release of another hormone (target is another endocrine gland)
- GnRH - released from hypothalamus → anterior pituitary
- FSH stimulates the follicle (grow egg)
- LH stimulates the corpus leuteum (hormones)
Does estrogen cause heart disease? Stroke?
osteoporosis in the elderly?
- Estrogen lowers blood cholesterol levels
- - less ASHD (arteriosclerotic heart disease) & CAD (coronary artery disease) in young women
Increases risk of breast cancer - breast is normal target organ & has estrogen receptors - 80% of breast cancers require estrogen to grow.
- Decreases risk of osteoporosis
- - hip fractures of particular concern - 25% first year mortality
Do estrogen levels indirectly cause ovulation?
- Yes - positive feedback system
- ↑ follicle estrogen → pituitary LH surge = ovulation
Are estrogen and testosterone anabolic of catabolic?
Estrogen is anabolic - it increses protein anabolism to build strong bones.
What hormone directly causes ovulation?
What is ovulation?
When does it occur?
What type of egg pops out?
- Sudden spike in LH (caused by estrogen) causes the follicle to rupture and egg is released.
- This occurs at about day 14 of the reproductive cycle.
- When the follicle ruptures and the egg pops out it is a secondary oocyte - it has completed meiosis I and is a haploid cell with sister chromotids still attached.
What structure is the corpus leuteum derived from?
When is it created?
What is its lifespan?
What hormone does it make?
What are the main functions of estrogen & progesterone on the uterus?
- Corpus leuteum = remnants of ruptured mature follicle
- It is created when the follicle ruptures & the egg is released. Granulosa cells transform the follice (yellow body)
It lives for 14 days and then degenerates into corpus albicans - if pregnant it lives for 3 months - Beta HCG from the chorion (pre-placents) stimulates the maintenance of the corpus leuteum until the placenta takes over endocrine functiions
Primary hormone is progesterone to maintain pregnancy
- Uterus - progesterone prepares & maintains the endometrium for implantation
- - estrogen - stimulates endometrial growth & prepared the uterus for zygote inplantation & development
What structure makes progesterone?
When pregmant? Early & later?
What is BHCG?
What does the corpus leuteum degenerate into?
- Corpus leuteum makes progesterone.
- In early prenancy (first 3 months ) corpus peuteum make it - Beta HCG is secreted by chorion (the ealry placenta) which keeps the corpus leutem alive to make progesterone. After first 3 month then placenta makes progesterone
Beta HCG = human chorionic gonadotropin
Corpus leuteum degenerates into corpus albicans (white body)
Phases of the ovarian & uterine cycles.
What are the follicular & luteal phases?
The proliferative & secretory phases?
- Reproductive Cycle:
- 1. Menstral = days 0-5
- 2. Pre-ovulation = days 6-13
- 3. Ovulation = day 14
- 4. Post- ovulation = day 15-28
- Ovarian Phase
- 1. Follicular = day 6-13 - follicles growing
- 2. Luteal = day 15-28 - corpus leuteum
- Uterine Phase
- 1. Proliferative = day 6-13 - endometrium growing
- 2. Secretory = day 15-28 - secreations of progesterone & estrogen = additional endometrial growth
What causes mensturation?
Mensturation is caused by the death of the corpus luteum on day 28. The corpus leutem was secreting progesterone and estrogen which stimulated growth of the endometrial layer. When it dies the endothelial layer starts to die.
Dying endometrial cells release PG's → PG's stimulate endometrial sprial arteriolar constriction - the endometrial cells they supply become O2 deprived and start to slough off.
Mittelschmerz means pain in the middle - this is pain that some women experience at the time of ovulation due to a small amount of blood leaking into the pelvic cavity when the follicle ruptures.
When does menstruation begin? Why?
Does the corpus albicans make hormoes?
What happens after menstruation? Why?
- Menstruation begins at day 0 when the corpus leuteum dies.
- The corpus albicans is broken down by macrophages & does not make any hormones.
After the corpus leuteum dies levels of progesterone, estrogen and inhibin decrease - negative feedback supression stops and GnRH, FSH, and LH levels rise - FSH stimulates follicular growth and a new ovarian cycle beings.
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