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what are the six rights of drug administration?
- right person
- right drug
- right dose
- right time
- right route
- right documentation
...agents used in the diagnosis, or prevention of disease.
...measures to decrease your risk of exposure to blood and body fluids.
...a condition free of pathogens.
...limited to one area.
...throughout the body.
...free of all forms of life.
...careful handling to prevent contamination.
...cleansing agent that destroys or inhibits pathogenic organisms and is also toxic to living tissue.
...cleansing agent that destroys or inhibits pathogenic organisms but is not toxic to living tissue.
routes of drug administration?
...medications applied to and absorbed through the skin or mucous membranes.
percutaneou (topical medications)
-transdermal (this route promotes slow, steady absorption)
-mucous membrane (this route absorbs medications at a moderate to rapid rate)
mucous membrane medication sites?
beneath the tongue
between the cheek and gums
drug administered through the mucous membranes of the eye
drug administered through the mucous membranes of the nose
drug administered through the mucous membranes of the ear and ear canal
drawing of medication into the lungs along with air during breathing
placement of medication in or under the skin with a needle and syringe
inhalation aid that disperses liquid into aerosol spray or mist
handheld device that produces a medicated spray for inhalation
pulmonary medication mechanisms?
- -metered-dose inhaler
- -endotracheal tube
- -naloxone (narcan)
...may have to increase dose 2-2.5 times and dilute.
enteral drug administration...
the delivery of any medication that is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract
- -gastric tube
oral drug administration...
the delivery of any medication that is taken by mouth and swallowed into the lower gastrointestinal tract
change in a medication's chemical composition that occurs in the liver
medication packaged in a soft, pliable form, for insertion into the rectum
a liquid bolus of medication that is injected into the rectum
parenteral drug administration...
drug administration outside of the gastrointestinal tract
injected into circulatory system or tissue...most rapid drug delivery and absorption
plastic tube in which medication can be drawn up, stored, and injected
hollow metal tube used with the syringe to administer medications
parts: hilt, shaft, and bevel
types of medication packaging...
- -glass ampules
- -single and multidose vials
- -nonconstituted drug vials
- -prefilled syringe
- -intravenous medication fluids
breakable glass vessel containing liquid medication
1-5ml, least expensive, single dose
plastic or glass container with a self-sealing rubber top
nonconstituted drug vial/mix-o-vial...
vial with two containers, one holding a powdered medication and the other holding a liquid mixing solution
extends shelf life
syringe packaged in a tamper-proof container with the medication already in the barrel
prefilled decreases dosage error
parenteral medication packaged in an IV bag and administered as an IV infusion
(infusion-liquid medication delivered through a vein)
- -intradermal injection
- -subcutaneous injection
- -intramuscular injection
- -intravenous access
- -intraosseous infusion
within the dermal layer of the skin
small amount, very slow rate of absorption, no systemic distribution
relating to the layer of loose connective tissue between the skin and muscle
small amount, slow sustained absorption prolongs drug affects on body, some systemic distribution
deposits medications into muscle
extremely vascular and permits systemic delivery at a moderate rate
intramusclar injection sites...
- -dorsal gluteal
- -vastus lateralis
- -rectus femoris
intravenous access (cannulation)...
surgical puncture of a vein to deliver medication or withdrawl blood
types of intravenous access...
-peripheral venous access (surigcal puncture of a vein in the arm, leg, or neck
-central venous access (surgical puncture of the internal jugular, subclavian, or femoral vein
peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC)...
line threaded into the central circulation via a peripheral site
chemically prepared solution tailored to the body's specific needs
keep vein patent, replace body lost fluids
four types of intravenous fluids...
- -oxygen-carrying fluids
intravenous solutions containing large proteins that cannot pass thru capillary membranes
remain in circulatory system longer, attract water, increase intravascular volume
intravenous solutions that contain electrolytes but lack the larger proteins
prehospital uses, three types..isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic
state in which solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane are in equal concentration
state in which a solution has a higher solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other side
state in which a solution has a lower solute concentration on one side of a semipermeable membrane than on the other side
three types of IV solutions....
-lactated ringers (isotonic solution, containing sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride and sodium lactate in water
-normal saline solution (isotonic solution, containing 0.90% sodium chloride in water
-5% percent dextrose in water (hypotonic solution, used to keep vein patent and supply calories needed for cellular metabolism)
most desirable fluid for blood replacement, hemoglobin in blood carries oxygen, O-negative is universal
administration tubing that delivers a relatively small amount of fluid
administration tubing that delivers a relatively large amount of fluid
flexible, clear plastic tubing that connects the solution bag to the IV cannula
clear plastic chamber that allows visualization of the drip rate
pace at which the fluid moves from the bag into the patient
administration tubing that contains a filter to prevent clots or other debris from entering the patient
three types of IV cannulas (intravenous cannulas)...
- -over-the-needle catheter
- -hollow-needle catheter
- -plastic catheter inserted thru a hollow needle
semiflexible catheter enclosing a sharp metal stylet
stylet that does not have a teflon tube but is itself inserted into the vein and secured there
catheter inserted thru the needle (intracatheter)...
teflon catheter inserted thru a large metal stylet
venous constricting band...
flat rubber band used to impede venous return and veins easier to see
never leave longer than 2 min
leakage of fluid or medication from the blood vessel that is commonly found with infiltration
- -constricting band still on
- -edema at puncture site
- -cannula abutting wall/valve
- -administration set closed
- -IV bag height too low
- -completely filled drip camber
IV access complications...
- -local infection
- -allergic reaction
- -catheter shear
- -inadvertent arterial puncture
- -air embolism
foreign protein capable of producing fever
abrupt onset of fever (100-106), within one half to one hour of IV
foreign particle in blood (catheter shear)
an excess in intravascular fluid volume
inflammation of the vein
common in long-term intravenous therapy, redness and edema at the puncture site
blood clot, can form if IV access injures the vessel wall
air in the vein
improper flushing of tubing
the sloughing off of dead tissue
drug that inhibits blood clotting
aspirin, Coumadin, heparin
peripheral IV port that does not use a bag of fluid
peripheral IV cannula with a distal medication port used for intermittent fluid or medication infusions, saline is injected into the device to maintain it's patency
venous access device...
surgically implanted port that permits repeated access to central venous circulation
glass container with color-coded, self sealing rubber top
vacuum packed, contain anticoagulants
device that holds blood tubes (multi-draw needle)
Luer sampling needle screws on the end
elevated numbers of red and white blood cells
caused from leaving constricting band on too long
the destruction on red blood cells
caused by vigorously shaking blood tube, using too small of needle, too forcefully aspirating blood in or out of syringe
infusion involved inserting a rigid needle into the cavity of a long bone or into the sternum
initiate IO line only after 90 sec or three unsuccessful attempts of peripheral IV
intraosseous access complications...
- -growth plate damage
- -complete insertion
- -pulmonary embolism
contraindications to intraosseous placement...
- -fracture to the tibia or femur
- -establishment of peripheral IV line
specific quantity of medication needed
weight per volume
dosage on hand...
the amount of drug available in a solution
volume on hand...
the available amount of solution containing a medication
predetermined amount of medication or fluid
speed at which a medication is delivered intravenously