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How are presidents elected?
Dukakis was ahead but pardoned rapist as govoner. Perifial, gets to your emotions. Sways opinions.
Let Willy Horton, a rapist, out after serving time.
- Prepared questions - prepared answers. 15 stock questions w answers.
- Control image - Look youthful, energetic, well groomed
- Great Communicator - Ronald Reagan was an example. Credibililty in his presence, from being an actor.
- Emotional issues brought up
- Most heavily advertised are most successful
- Periferal aspect is route to persuasion through emotion, attractive
- Central aspect is intelligent, facts, figures, logic.
Example of Periferal advertising?
On Star commercial, showing woman in accident, panicked. On Star persons voice, calming her, telling her she is sending an ambulence. They know her location, help is on the way.
What is 'Trickery" in advertising?
- Advertise "no pain reliever stronger or more affective, but big difference in cost of Bayer vs generic asprine.
- Commercial with mother and child, burglar is trying to get into home, security system goes off and saves her.
Suttle propaganda in school.
Promote democracy, but geneside of Native American Indians left out (Trail of Tears)
Presidents had black girlfriends and children with them, Thomas Jefferson.
Andrew Jackson ordered the death march of American Indians
Presidents had black mistresses and slaves
- School textbooks don't get into negative things done.
- Don't study 80's, 90's or VietNam.
3 Factors to persuasion:
- 1. Who says it - Source
- 2. Nature of communication - how it was said
- 3. Characteristics of audience - whom it is said to, hearing the message
1. Source- who is saying it, buying product, voting
- Expert, knowledgable, likable, attractive, trust worthy, credible, want to identify with them, like them
- Athletes, movie stars, music - people rated glamorous - sell products.
- Some people more trust worthy, even don't like them.
- If they argue against their interest, you are not sure if they are trying to influence you. appear more credible.
2. Nature of Communicator - Logical vs Promotional techniques.
- Emotional works best - more frightened w/ react.
- Keep blacks out of neighborhood - code word used "keep getto quiet"
- Terrorism plays up fear today
- More frightened, more apt to act
- People with high self esteem will react quicker, low self esteem will be delayed, hesitant but will react.
- High fear works best. Ex: wrecked car outside of schools at prom time.
- Ex: Military film, wanted to keep soldiers away from prostitutes, showed films with disease.
Ways of convincing w one sided or two sided arguement.
What is a two sided arguement?
Important to know your audience (college, well informed, educated?)
- Two sided arguement shows both sides, debates them. One side refutes the other.
- This confuses the "well informed" audience.
- Works best with intelligent people.
- Less educated will get confused, not graduated High School, doesn't read
- What issues will persuade you? Hockey moms, your hometown, tend to lean on your views.
If not in favor of your opinion - 2 sided arguement is best to influence.
3. Order of Presentation: because of time, time between 1st and 2nd speaker. Lunch break?
Time end of 2nd talk, decision making process. How quickly will decide?
Privacy - 2 talks back to back. Best to be first speaker. Still digesting 1st talk, not taking in 2nd person.
Better to retain if election is right before decision.
Lunch break, better to be last speech.
- How do you convince a jury - debate if guilty.
- Closing argument - come back next day
- How do you prove innocence?
- Lawyers hire psychologist to learn about jury. Educated? Get names of potential jury, find best people to favor your client.
- Ex: Women on jury for rape trial.
- African American jury if black person on trial. (O.J.)
Closing argument comes right after first argument. Better to be first.
(2. cont) How you say it - size of discrepency matters.
Disagree w/ us makes us uncomfortable.
Greater the disagreement of discrepancy, the greater the discomfort.
Based on credability of person telling us to ....
Greater discrepency between view and audience, the more likely to be felt, don't know about person, no credability
Maximum opinions change, will respond if they are credible even if uncomfortable.
3. Who are you talking to?
Self esteem is important, education level. Low self esteem, easier to pursuade.
Someone who values their own ideas, less able to sway
- Tech: Soften audience- guest speaker tell jokes, give alcohol, food, get them relaxed, well fed.
- Then, hit you with what they want.
- Free dinner, more obliged
- People get older, buy insurance w/ this group rather than that (AARP)
- Use toast master, comedian, makes you feel good.
- Send gift, more apt to react ($1.00 in mail, labels sent with name on it asking for donation)
What are some proven tactics to increase persuasion?
- Innoculation affect. Ex: The Wave.
- Exposure was watered down.
- Prior exposure by watered down attach will produce resistance to later attach to defend their beliefs.
- Motivated to defend - attach beliefs mildly, make you question.
- "Have you thought about your beliefs"?
- Challenged, makes you reevaluate.
- We will resist severe attach
- If beliefs are handed down, they are the easiest belief's to brainwash.
- Gain practice to defend beliefs is more effective.
- People do not want their convictions challenged, makes them uncomfortable.
What is the difference between opinion and attitude?
- Opinion is unemotional, thought out, can be changed
- Attitude is harder to change, emotional likes and dislikes.
- Supermarket persuades us by placement of products. More expensive at eye level.
- You sell product by persuading person they want to identify with person, want to be like them, vs chemist in lab coat. "Perifial persuasion"
What makes someone attractive?
How have we been convinced someone is attractive? Level of agreement of selling product.
How do you convince a jury? Fear works best.
- Big increase in Autism - people persuaded by fluorine in water, against inoculations.
- No credible evidence. Scare tactic convinces people.
Practice of Persuasion - Article12
1. Liking has 4 determinants:
- 1. Physical attractiveness
- 2. Similarity, finding commonality (ex: same school, shop at same place)
- 3. Cooperation - 2 different people working towards same goal
- 4. Person is partial to us - want to please them
Do something nice for me - will do something nice for you
Obligation to repay people when they do nice things - if given a gift, feel obliged, no matter how small
Want to appear consistant - if given their word (ex: dessert first) If they say yes in beginning, will buy.
3. Scarcity - creates demand for product.
Limited time, limited number
Advertisers create sense of panic.
4. Social Validation - Look to others how to think, feel
Popularity of product - make you fit in, belong
5. Authority - Hold power over someone
Influences what we thing. Ex: Chef's choice on menu. He is a food expert.
- Liking - social selling, flattering, compliment, common ground
- Reciprication - tips, bargaining, candy to nurse. Something nice deserves something nice back.
- Consistency - Dessert first.
- Scarcity - running out of dessert
- Social Validation - if someone we identify with or respect (Ex; neighbor with cancer, raising money)
- Authority - Ex: Collin Powell, came out believing weapons of mass distruction, we believed him because we trust him.
1. Persuasion by inches - what will it take to persuade you?
Low ball, give low estimate
Get personal (liking)
Make believe interested, took up time, pointed out defect on a car, pretended to be interested at that price.
Gave check for $1,000 to buy car, now. Less than price.
Takes up more of salesmans time. How much will cost to repair? Take that price off price of car.
Trying to get commitment from salesman to sell car.
Addes personal check for $150. Got salesman down $850
- Gift Giving: Purple Hearts, tax write off, give reciept for taxes.
- Once you donate, its hard not to do it again.
- Nursing students calling ulumnea nursing students for donations.
- Get people to make commitment for something small, slowly escalate. (Foot in the door)
- Escalation Phenomenon - come to retreat, then come to weekend, then move in.
- Ex: buy tires, tell you brakes are bad.
- If you want someone to help you, do something nice for them first.
- They do small favor, in future will do bigger favor.
- To get someone to agree with you, star agreeing with them first! Save arguement for important things.
- Make them think they are right. Sets stage for them to agree with you in future.
People affiliate with home, winning team. If losing, less go to games.
Sports Psychology - Sports team is an extention for who you are. What team is doing affects their mood.
If can't identify with team because losing, will identify with player.
Tailgate party - drinking, eating, party, social fans come together.
Love/Hate them, fans yelling at team.
Social connectiveness - team decreases/increases self esteem. Emotional experience to watch them play.
Team becomes extension of themselves - their family.
Score boards - people birthday, showing fans
Off season - training camps, invite fans to be with them.
Social Influence: Life and Death
Death Qualification procedure - process whereby, in selecting jury for murder trial, perspective jurors who opposed to the death penalty are excluded from jury.
This subtly suggests law disapproves of people who oppose death penatly.
Influence of other people have an affect on person's behavior.
Responses to Social Influence:
1. Motivated by rewards and punishment
2. Relative peranence of conforming behavior,
3 kinds of responses to social influence: Compliance, Identification or Internalization.
Compliance - person who is motivated by desire to gain reward or avoid punishment. Only as long lived as the promise of reward or threat of punishment. This is the least enduring.
- Identification - response to social influence brought about by individual's desire to be like the influencer.
- We adopt a behavior because it puts us in a satisfying relationship to the person with whom we identify. Differs from compliance in that we do come to believe the opinion and values we adopt., although we do not believe in them strongly. If group is attractive, we we will be inclined to accept influence from them.
- "Uncle Charlie" phenomenon. Loved uncle since childhood, his beliefs have become part of your belief systemm from comments made during childhood. Becomes part of belief system because you like Uncle Charlie.
- If Uncle Charlie moves to a different city and months or years go by without seeing him, his beliefs are likely to fade.
This phenomenon occurs often when we encounter the opinions of people we like or admire.
- Internalization: Belief or value is most permanent, most deeply rooted response to social influence.
- Motivation to internalize a belief is the desire to be right. The reward is intrinsic , innate, inborn.
- If the person who provides the influlence is perceived to be trustworthy and to have good judgement - we accept the belief they advocate and we integrate it into our system of values. Once it is part of our values, it becomes independent of its source and is extremely resistant to change.
- Most permanant response because your motivation to be right is powerful and self sustaining force, does not depend on constant surveillance.
Ex: Speeding, if forwarned of police surveillance, we obey the law. Obey the law to avoid paying a penalty. If remove the patrol, many would increase speed.
- In compliance, the important component is power! The power of the influencer to dole out reward or punishment. Parents have power to praise, give love, give spankings.
- Teachers have power to give gold stars or humiliate.
- In identification the important component is attractiveness - the attractiveness of the person we identify with. If that person likes issue, we aggree. If person denounces, we disagree with issue.
- In internalization, the important component is credibility. The credibility of the person who supplies the information.
Compliance and identification are generally more temporary than internalization. Permanence can be increased if an individual makes a firm commitment to continue to interact with the person that induced the original act of compliance.
Permanence can also result if, when complying, we discover something about our actions that make it worthwhile to continue the behavior, even after the original reason for compliance (reward/punishment) is no longer there. This is called Secondary gain. Ex quit smoking, start to feel good
What is Media Contagion?
The power of the media is best illuistrated by a phenomenon known as emotional contagion.
Ex: Tylenol, 7 people died from capsuls laced with cyanide. Similar reportings of poisonings appeared, involving the contamination of mouthswash, eye drops. Copycat poisonings.
What is propaganda? The systematic propagation of a given doctrine and education as the act of imparting knowledge or skill. Ex: the implication that marijuana leads to the use of addictive drugs.
2 major routes to persuasion:
Centrally or Peripherally.
The Centrally route involves weighing arguements and considering relevant facts and figures, thinking about issues in a systematic fashion and coming to a decision.
The Peripherally route involves persuasion, rather than relying on a careful process of weighing and considering the strngth of arguments, the person responds to simple, often irreleant cues that suggest the righnes, wrongness, or attractiveness of an argument, without giving it much thought.
Ex: How to remedy an ailing economy has to do with the central route - getting scared and angry by the image of Willie Horton has to do with the periperal route.
Man decides to buy a computer because the ad depicts it as having the kind of user feriendliness, processing speed, memory, he is being moved by the logic of the arguement. This is the central route.
But, if he decides to buy the computer because his favorite movie star owns this model, he is being moved by the peripheral route.
- The key factors that increase the effectiveness of a communication?
- 1. Source of communication - (who says it)
- 2. The nature of the communication - (how he or she says it)
- 3. Characteristics of the audience - (to whom he or she says it)
- Who says what to whom!
One Sided versus Two sided arguements:
Order of presentation - First arguement is more effective is called the primacy effect, if the last arguement is effective, we call the the recency effect.
Crucial effect is: time. The amount of time between the first and second communication.
Interference is greatest if very little time elapses between the two communications
Retention is greatest, and recency effects will prevail, if the audience must make up its mind immediately.