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  1. Podzol horizons
    • Well defined horizons due to absence of worms and limited reworking of the soil. This also involves a process called Podsolisation which involves pronounced leaching due to rainfall and spring snow melt of material(iron, aluminium and humus compounds)
    • Shallow roots prevent moxong of soil between layers
  2. Location of Podzols
    Found in Northen boreal coniferous forests with associated cold,wet climates in which precipetation is greater than evaporation
  3. Ao horizon podzols
    • L-fresh litter- needles, cones and heather shoots
    • F- slow degeneration beacuse of limited bacteria activity and cold climate
    • H- Acidic mor humus - with a pH of 3.5-4.0
  4. A horizon podzols
    • Ash gray with a sandy texture
    • This is beacuse all of its minerala (iron, clay and humus) have been washed out leaving insoluble silicates
    • Zone of eluviation
  5. B horizon podzols
    • Red/brown colour with denser texture
    • This is beacause iron and aluminium have been illuviated in and redeposited in the soil
    • If iron accumulates over a long time a rust coloured iron pan forms, often several cm's thick
  6. Iron pan prevents
    • Penetration of plant roots
    • free drainage of the podsol resulting in water logging(gleying)
  7. Ao horizon brown earth
    • l-fresh, thick litter, especially in Autumn of falling leaves
    • F-rapid decomposition with earth worm and bacterial activity
    • H-mildly acidic mull Humus-5.8
    • decomposes quicker than podzol due to milder climate
  8. A Horizon brown earth
    • well areated
    • dark brown as humus replaces minerals that are leached out
    • leaching is small due to close balance of precipetation and evaporation
  9. B Horizon brown earth
    • not clearly defined as it merges from A horizon
    • Lighter brown due to humus being less abundent
  10. Brown earth location
    Developed beneath the temperate broad leaved deciduous forests of Europe, russia and north america
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