Solutions and Colligative Properties

Card Set Information

Author:
Anonymous
ID:
81038
Filename:
Solutions and Colligative Properties
Updated:
2011-04-21 15:15:58
Tags:
Chemistry
Folders:

Description:
Chapter 12 and 13 Test
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Soluble
    Capable of being dissolved
  2. Solution
    A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase
  3. Solvent
    the dissolving medium in a solution
  4. Solute
    The substance dissolved in a solution
  5. Suspension
    When the particles are so large that they settle out unless the mixture is constantly stirred or agitated
  6. Colloids
    Particles that are intermediate in size between those in solutions and suspensions
  7. Tyndall Effect
    When light is scattered by the particles in a colloid
  8. Electrolyte
    A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electric current
  9. Nonelectrolyte
    A substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that does not conduct electricity
  10. Factors Affecting Rate of Dissolution
    • 1) Increasing that surface area of the solute
    • 2) Agitating a solution
    • 3) Heating a solvent
  11. Solution equilibrium
    The physical state in which the opposing processes of dissolution and crystallization of a solute occur at equal rates
  12. Saturated Solution
    A solution that contains the maximum amount of dissolved solute
  13. Unsaturated Solution
    A solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution
  14. Supersaturated Solution
    A solution that contains more dissolved solute than a saturated solution under the same conditions
  15. Solubility
    The amount of that substance required to form a saturated solution with a specific amount of solvent at a specified temperature
  16. Hydration
    The solution process with water as the solvent
  17. Immiscible
    Liquids that are not soluble in each other
  18. Miscible
    Liquids that dissolve freely in one another in any proportion
  19. Henry's Law
    The solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas on the surface of the liquid
  20. Effervescence
    The rapid escape of a gas from a liquid in which it is dissoleved
  21. Solvated
    A solute particle that is surrounded by solvent molecules
  22. How does pressure affect solubility?
    Little change in liquid or solid solubility, but increases solubility in gases
  23. How does temperature affect solubility?
    An increase in temperature decreases the solubility of gases, but mostly increases the solubility of solids in liquids
  24. Enthalpy of solution
    The net amount of energy absorbed as heat by the solution when a specific amount of solute dissolves in a solvent
  25. Concentration
    A measure of the amount of solute in a given amount of solvent or solution
  26. Molarity
    The number of moles of solute in one liter of solution
  27. Molality
    The concentration of a solution expressed in moles of solute per kilogram of solvent
  28. Dissociation
    The separation of ions that occurs when an ionic compound dissolves
  29. Net Ionic Equation
    Includes only those compounds and ions that undergo a chemical change in a reaction in an aqueous solution
  30. Spectator Ions
    Ions that do not take part in a chemical reaction and are found in solution both before and after the reaction
  31. Ionization
    Ions are formed from solute molecules by the action of the solvent
  32. Strong Electrolyte
    Any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity well; this is due to the presence of all or almost all the dissolved compound in the form of ions
  33. Weak Electrolyte
    Any compound whose dilute aqueous solutions conduct electricity poorly; this is due to the presence of a small amount of the dissolved compound in the form of ions
  34. Colligative Properties
    Properties that depend upon the concentration of solute particles but not on their identity
  35. Nonvolatile Substance
    One that has little tendency to become a gas under existing conditions
  36. Colligative Properties (3)
    • 1) Vapor-pressure lowering
    • 2) Freezing-point depression
    • 3) Boiling-point elevation
  37. Molal Freezing-Point Constant (Kf)
    The freezing-point depression of the solvent in a 1-molal solution of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solution (1.86 C for water)
  38. Freezing-Point Depression
    The difference between the freezing points of the pure solvent and a solution of a nonelectrolyte in that solvent, and it is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
  39. Molal Boiling-Point Constant (Kb)
    The boiling point elevation of the solvent in a 1-molal solution of a nonvolatile, nonelectrolyte solute (0.51 C for water)
  40. Boiling-Point elevation
    the difference between the boiling points of the pure solvent and a nonelectrolyte solution of that solvent and it is directly proportional to the molal concentration of the solution
  41. Semipermeable Membrane
    Allows the passage of some particles while blocking the passage of others
  42. Osmosis
    The movement of solvent molecules through a semipermeable membrane from the side of lower solute concentration tot he side of higher solute concentration
  43. Osmotic Pressure
    the external pressure that must be applied to stop osmosis

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview