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A school in Scotland that consisted of a circle of modern and influential artists that made distinctive contributions to the Art Noveau movement in Architecture and Interior Design.
The school was deisgned by Mackintosh
The Glasgow School
A production community of visual artists that evolved from a progressive alliance of artists and designers. The workshop brought together architects, artists, and designers whose first commitment was to design art that was accessible to everyone. The main goal was to make all faucets of human life into one unified work of art. Some of the specialties included metalwork, leather work, bookbinding, woodworking, and painting. Great value was put on exclusive and exquisite craftsmanship.
Weiner Werkstatte (founded 1903)
Example of works from Weiner Werkstatte
A German association of artists, architects, and designers, that was key to the development of modern
architecture and industrial design, particularly in the later development of the Bauhaus design. Its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufactures with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in global markets. It was less of an artistic movement than
it was a state sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass production techniques. “Unite Art, Industry, the Crafts & Trades”
A group of Austrian artists (Gustav Klimt, Koloman Moser, Joseph Hoffman, Joseph Maria Olbrich, Mac Kurzweil and others) who had resigned from the
Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Kundstlerhaus. It included painters, sculptors, and architects. The first president of the secession was Gustav Klimt and Rudolf Von Alt was honorary president.
Wiener Sezession, Vienna Secession (founded 1898)
the so-called ʻHoffmann Squareʼ - checker board pattern
rising sun motif -Art Deco
frozen fountain motif - Art Deco
An artistic and social movement that originated in Italy in the early 20th century
Futurism, the Futurists
stepped pyramid - a major theme in Art Deco works
Done to prevent buildings from blocking light and air from hitting the streets; not imposing height limits, restricted towers to a percentage of the lot size ; end of the 1920s the setback skyscraper, originally built in response to a New York zoning code ; The tiered
Art Deco skyscrapers of the 1920s and 1930s are a direct result of this resolution; By mid-century most new International Style buildings had met the setback requirements by adopting the use of plazas or low-rise buildings surrounding a monolithic tower centered on the site
Set-back (as required by New York City's 1916 zoning law)
An ecletic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s; he term "art deco" was first used widely in 1966; represented elegance, glamour, functionality and modernity; linear symmetry contrast to Art Nouveaus asymmetry; purely decorative, no philosophical or political beginnings ; inspired by Neoclassicism, Constructivisim, Cubism, Modernism, Futurism ; i.e.: Chrysler Building
le Style Moderne, i.e. original name for the Art Deco Style
The culmination of style moderne in Paris
Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et Industriel Moderns, 1925, Paris
Tear drop shape; Aerodynamic design in the 1920s and 1930s in which curving walls, long strips
of windows (often curved around elements of a building), and thin flat roofs with pronounced overhangs were used, often in factories to suggest cleanliness and modernity. It was a characteristic of Modernism, and was promoted by designers such as Loewy and Teague.
Streamlining, aerodynamic styling
A beam supported on only one end; The
beam carries the load to the support where it is resisted by moment and shear stress; Cantilever construction allows for overhanging structures without
external bracing; Cantilevers can also be constructed with trusses or slabs
The department store featured mock modern room displays that popularized modern furnishings and design
"Modern Design Exposition," Lord & Taylor, 1928
Metropolitan Museum of Art held an exhibition that featured modern interiors and furnishings and stressed the collaborations between architects + industrial designers. This also popularized modern design.
- "Contemporary American
- Industrial Art, MOMA exhibition, 1934 -
Architecture that suggested something machine-made, acknowledging industrialization, mass-production, and
engineering, or that used elements of metal structures (ships, aeroplanes, motorcars, etc.) in an eclectic fashion, more a matter of arriving at an appearance
than of actually being what it seemed, a fact that contradicted demands for honesty and truth in architecture, and denied the logic of structural
principles ; economic hardships led to mass production which broadened peoples opinion on machine aesthetic ; mirrored glass, shiny metals, molded plastics, synthetic materials became popular
This was the mindset of modernism; things were
done for a purpose and were made to be functional
Contrasts reductionists theory ; looks to the
past for inspiration and context
common in Mies Van Der Rohes and Le Corbusier furniture ; made possible with machinery
chrome or nickle-plated steel tubing or rod
concrete in which reinforcement bars, reinforcement grids, plates or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen the concrete in tension. It was invented by French gardener Joseph Monier 1849 and patented in 1867. The term Ferro Concrete refers only to concrete that is reinforced with iron or steel. Other materials used to reinforce concrete can be organic and inorganic fibres as well as composites in different forms.
outer covering of a building in which the outer walls are non-structural, but merely keep out the weather
light weight metal that was considered a new
material during this period for furniture, laminates, etc. . It was used by the Bauhaus and in Art Deco works
A steel alloy that was considered to be a new material during this period. Used by the Bauhaus and in Art Deco works.
New material at this time due to technology advancements that was embraced by the Bauhaus and Art Deco.
black glass -
New material at this time due to technology
advancements that was embraced by the Bauhaus and Art Deco
strongly associated with the Art Deco movement
fluorescent and neon lighting -
“Design must be based upon tradition. Study the past, but donʼt imitate it: absorb, adapt, abstract characteristics from the past and reinterpret them in a modern way.”
(a paraphrasing of Charles Rennie Mackintoshʼs design philosophy)
“Any design must express: Usefulness, i.e., form must evolve from functional requirements; Unity, i.e., all parts must related to the whole; Strength, i.e., the strength of the architectural shell must contrast with the
delicacy of the interior; and Beauty, i.e., a combination of materials used honestly, decoration used economically, and subtle associations with the past.”
a paraphrasing of Charles Rennie Mackintoshʼs design philosophy
“Art for the times; art must be free!”
—manifesto of the Vienna Secessionists
"Nothing that is not practical can be beautiful."
"Ornament is squandered work and hence squandered health. And it has always been so. Today, however, it also means squandered material and hence squandered capital."
---Adolf Loos, 1908
The Deutscher Werkbund (German Work Federation) was a German association of artists, architects, designers, and industrialists. The Werkbund was to become an important event in the development of modern architecture and industrial design, particularly in the later creation of the Bauhaus school of design. Its initial purpose was to establish a partnership of product manufacturers with design professionals to improve the competitiveness of German companies in global markets. The Werkbund
was less an artistic movement than a state-sponsored effort to integrate traditional crafts and industrial mass-production techniques, to put Germany on a competitive footing with England and the United States. Its motto Vom Sofakissen zum Städtebau (from sofa cushions to city-building) indicates its range of interest
The goal of the Deutscher Werkbund was to “unite art, industry, the crafts and trades.”
At the age of 16, he was apprenticed to an architect. He attended the Glasgow School of Art. At 21, he became a junior draftsman with the firm of Honeyman
& Keppie, where he fell in love with Jessie Keppie, the principles sister. The love affair endly badly. Historical influences in Mackintosh’s work influenced: The Italian Renaissance, Mannerism, Scotland’s castles and fortified houses, the work of CVA Voysey and the Arts and Crafts movement.)
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
“I had talent; Margaret had genius” (Speaking of his wife Margaret Macdonald Mackintosh
Charles Rennie Mackintosh
Usefulness: Form must evolve from functional requirements.
Unity: All parts must relate to the whole
Strength: The strength of the architectural shell must
contrast with the delicacy of the interior
Beauty: Is achieved by combining materials used honestly, decoration used economically, and subtle associations with the past.
Often used heart motif, that usually has a line across it symbolizing his“Broken heart”
Art Nouveau, more in form, not ornamentation
Uses a lot of curvilinear lines in work.
Incorporates the Grid in most work, or checkerboard.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh