ARE Site Planning and Design

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ARE Site Planning and Design
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ARE Site Planning and Design
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  1. retention pond
    pond thats designed to hold water indefinitely. it always maintains a certain capacity of water.
  2. detention pond
    low lying area that is designed to temporarily hold a set amount of water while slowing draining to another location.
  3. defensible space
    also know as "crime prevention through enviornmental design"(CPTED) - the idea that crime and deliquency can be controled and mitgated through environmental design and building design. (it relates an individuals environment to his expectation of crime in the community)
  4. four factors that make a defensible space
    • territorial - the idea that ones home is sacred.
    • natural surveillance - residences ability to see whats happening.
    • image - physical design to impart a sense of security.
    • milieu (environment) - other features that may affect security (ie proximity to police, substation or busy commercial area)
  5. new urbanism
    trend toward the restoration of community and concern for a more sustainable environment. (walkability is key, mixed use)

    CNU (congress of new urbanism) started in 1993. architects peter calthrope, andres duany, elizabeth moule, stefano polyzoide, peter katz.
  6. culvert
    a pipelike construction of concrete that passes under a road to allow drainage.
  7. check dam
    a small dam, which can be either temporary or permanent, built across a minor channel, swale, bioswale, or drainage ditch

    (they reduce erosion and gullying in the channel and allow sediments and pollutants to settle)

    They also lower the speed of water flow during storm events
  8. a small dam, which can be either temporary or permanent, built across a minor channel, swale, bioswale, or drainage ditch

    (they reduce erosion and gullying in the channel and allow sediments and pollutants to settle)

    They also lower the speed of water flow during storm events
    check dam
  9. weir
    a low dam built across a stream to raise its level or divert its flow
  10. a low dam built across a stream to raise its level or divert its flow
    weir
  11. international style
    1920s Western Europe

    efforts to industrialize craft traditions

    bauhaus - concerned with reconciling craft tradition and industrial technology

    lecorbusier, mies vander rohe, walter gropius
  12. Amortization
    used in the context of zoning regulations and describes the time in which a property owner has to relocate when the property's use constitutes a pre-existing nonconforming use under zoning regulations
  13. used in the context of zoning regulations and describes the time in
    which a property owner has to relocate when the property's use
    constitutes a pre-existing nonconforming use under zoning regulations
    amortization
  14. City Beautiful movement
    -reform movement in north american arch and urban planning

    -1890's and 1900's

    -the intent of using beautification and monumental grandeur in cities to counteract the perceived moral decay of poverty-stricken urban environment

    - related with beaux----arts architects like daniel burham and white arts architects like daniel burham and white city(columbian exhibition
  15. Mothballing
    It is when you designate certain areas to be repaired or restored at a later date, under a later contract

    to withdraw from use or service and keep in reserve : put aside
  16. when you designate certain areas to be repaired or restored at a later date, under a later contract

    to withdraw from use or service and keep in reserve : put aside
    mothballing
  17. proctor test
    test to determine the max. practically-achievable density of soils and aggregates.
  18. metes and bound
    Typically the system uses physical features of the local geography, along with directions and distances, to define and describe the boundaries of a parcel of land. The boundaries are described in a running prose style, working around the parcel in sequence, from a point of beginning, returning back to the same point
  19. concept of "a patterned language
    "patterns" that alexander believe's must be present in order for an environment to be pleasing, comfortable, or in their words, "alive."
  20. aquifer
    An underground permeable material through which water flows
  21. design strategies for cool climates
    • -compact forms with smaller surface area possible relative to the volume
    • -large south facing windows, small windows on the east and west, minimal windows on the north
    • -interior materials with a high thermal mass
    • - summer shading for glazed areas
    • -dark colors for the building exterior
  22. design strategies for temperate climates
    • -plan rectangular buildings with long direction on east-west axis, facing slightly to the east.
    • -provide shade in the summer, allow the sun to fall on glaing and building in the winter.
    • -use south facing openings to capture winter sunlight
    • -plan for cooling effects of the wind in the summer, block the wind in the winter
    • -use medium colors for the building exterior
  23. design strategies for hot-humid climates
    • -provide shade for all openings
    • -maximize natural ventilation with large openings, high ceilings, and cross ventilation.
    • -construct buildings with light materials, minimize thermal mass.
    • -use light colored materials for building exterior
  24. design strategies for hot-arid climates
    • -use compact forms with the smallest surface area possible relative to the volume.
    • - minimize opening sizes
    • - provide shade for openings.
    • -maximize thermal mass.
    • -use light colors for building exterior.
  25. additional stormwater that does not seep into the ground
    runoff
  26. runoff
    additional stormwater that does not seep into the ground
  27. two types of above gound drainage
    • 1. sheet flow - water that drains across a sloping surface
    • 2. ground swales - built into the landscaping
  28. what slope should sheet flow drainage have?
    • 1% to 1.5%
    • 1% is acceptable for smooth surfaces
  29. drain that has a sump built into it so that debris will settle instead of flowing down the sewer
    catch basin

    (large storm sewer systems require man holes which are located where the pipe changes direction or every 500')
  30. fraction of water not absorbed into the earth
    run off coefficient
  31. the lowest elevations of the existing public sewer line
    invert
  32. invert
    the lowest elevations of the existing public sewer line
  33. what is the min. slope of building sewer lines?
    .5% to 2% depending on the size of the pipe (a greater slope is required for smaller pipes)
  34. maximum slope for roads
    10% to 15% for short distances with a min 1/4"/ft for drainage from the center of the roadway (crown)
  35. minimum slope of a sidewalk (perpendicular to the direction of paving)
    1/4"/ft
  36. how wide should two way traffic lane be?
    24'
  37. how wide should one way traffic be?
    12' to 14'
  38. standard parking stall dimensions
    9'x19'
  39. van accessible space aisle width
    96" wide (1/4"/ft slope must be maintained)
  40. minimum accessible route width
    36"
  41. accessible parking aisle width
    5'
  42. drainage in parking areas should be about what percent?
    2% to 3% (5% max.)
  43. albedo
    portion of radiant energy that is reflected as it falls on a surface

    • 0 albedo - all energy is being absorbed
    • 1 albedo - all energy is being reflected
  44. portion of radiant energy that is reflected as it falls on a surface
    albedo
  45. the part of the root system in which construction damage should be avoided
    protected root zone (PRZ) which is usually below the dripline (area directly below the branches of a tree)
  46. north-south lines
    meridians
  47. what are meridians?
    north-south running lines
  48. east-west running lines
    parallels
  49. what are parallels?
    east-west running lines
  50. parallels and meridians are ___miles apart?
    24
  51. the squares that meridians and parallels form are called
    checks
  52. what is the size of a township?
    6 miles sq. (divided from a check which is 24 miles)
  53. how many square feet is in a acre?
    43,560 sqft
  54. township vs. range
    • a township that runs east-west is called a township
    • a township that runs north-south is called a range
  55. townships are divided into how many sections?
    36 (1 sq mile each)
  56. diffraction
    behavior of sound, light or other waves, when they encounter a barrier or pass through a small opening.
  57. behavior of sound, light or other waves, when they encounter a barrier or pass through a small opening
    diffraction
  58. 4 different types of site security
    • perimeter
    • access and parking
    • on-site security
    • building envelope
  59. sally port
    an entrance with 2 secure gates with a small waiting area between them.

    ex: like at the old ghetto washington mutual bank.
  60. maekawa equation
    • the reduction in noise in decibles from a point source using N=(f/565)(A+B-d)
    • f is the frequency of the sound
    • d is the distance of the acoustical line of sight from the source of the sound to the receiver
    • A+B is the shortest path around the barrier
  61. sound from a point source decreases by about ___db each time the distance it travels ______.
    6db, doubles
  62. where rainwater is collected and stored
    cistern
  63. cistern
    where rainwater is collected and stored
  64. control of moisture that is not under hydrostatic pressure
    dampproofing
  65. dampproofing
    control of moisture that is not under hydrostatic pressure
  66. different types of dampproofing
    • admixtures (reduce strungth of concrete, but make it less permeable to water)
    • bituminous coatings (asphalt or coal tar materials applied to the exterior side of the foundation wall.
    • cementitious coatings (1 or 2 coats of portland cement mortar trowled over a surface)
    • membranes (built up layers of material)
  67. waterproofing
    control of moisture and water that is subject to hydrostatic pressure.
  68. control of moisture and water that is subject to hydrostatic pressure.
    waterproofing
  69. types of soil remediation technologies
    • Excavation or dredging
    • SEAR - surfactant enhanced aquifer remediation
    • Pump and treat
    • Solidification and Stabilization
    • In situ oxidation
    • Soil vapor extraction
  70. soil remediation
    removal of pollution or contaminants from soil
  71. removal of pollution or contaminants from soil
    soil remediation
  72. medieval cities
    • started at a cross roads of two main street
    • irregular layout
    • organized around a church and market
    • walled
  73. greek cities
    • temple and agora (market) as the center of city
    • typically walled
  74. renaissance cities
    • paid more attention to aesthetics of urban design
    • focused on points of interest
  75. renaissance urban plans
    • christopher wren (london)
    • georges-eugene haussmann (paris)
  76. turbine square
    creating civic spaces around a pinwheel arrangement of streets
  77. creating civic spaces around a pinwheel arrangement of streets
    turbine square
  78. garden city (ebenizer howard)
    a core with "belts" or "rings" greenbelt at the outermost belt

    ex: letchworth 1903 and welwyn garden city 1920
  79. cite industrielle
    introduced by tony garnier 1917, included seperate zones for residential , industrial and argiculture linked by paths.(first plan to emphasize the idea of zoning)
  80. gridiron street system
    regularly planned public open spaces and uniform spacing and set backs of buildings.
  81. columbian exposition
    grouped classical buildings symmetricaly around formal courts of honor, reflecting pools and large promenades. it started the city beautiful movement. included broad tree lined parkways and streets
  82. new town
    idea that new communities can be built away from crowding and existing cities (sprawl?) were supposed to be autonomous centers including housing, shoping and business around a greenbelt.
  83. new urbanism
    promotes the creation and restoration of diverse, walkable, compact, vibrant, mixed-use communities composed of the same components as conventional development, but assembled in a more integrated fashion, in the form of complete communities
  84. principles of new urbanism
    • 1.Walkability
    • 2. Connectivity
    • 3. Mixed-Use & Diversity
    • 4. Mixed Housing
    • 5. Quality Architecture & Urban Design
    • 6. Traditional Neighborhood Structure
    • 7. Increased Density
    • 8. Smart Transportation-
    • 9. Sustainability
    • 10. Quality of Life
  85. land development patterns
    • grid
    • star
    • field
    • satellite
    • megalopolis
  86. star development pattern
    relvolves around a urban core
  87. field development pattern
    has no central focus or overall aparent organization

    (ex: los angeles)
  88. satellite development pattern
    • central core with other major cores surrounding it
    • outter cores are connected by a beltway
    • often starts out as a star pattern
  89. megalopolis development pattern
    when two or more urban centers are near eachother and they grow together (as the space between is developed)
  90. imageability
    the quality of a physical environment that gives a high probability of evoking a strong image in the mind of a given observer
  91. the quality of a physical environment that gives a high probability of evoking a strong image in the mind of a given observer
    inageability
  92. kevin lynches 5 basic elements of the city
    • paths
    • edges
    • districts
    • nodes
    • landmarks
  93. nodes (kevin lynch)
    centers of interest that people can enter
  94. landmarks (kevin lynch)
    places of interest that people can not enter

    (ex: tower, monument)
  95. superblock
    a large piece of land that limited the intrusion of the automobile
  96. examples of superblocks
    • chandigarh, india (corbusier)
    • brasilia, brazil (niemeyer)
  97. design principals of planned unit development (PUD)
    • Houses and placement of houses
    • streets
    • Sidewalks and pedestrian ways
  98. density
    refers to the number of people per unit of area. refers only to a ratio.
  99. sociopetal
    spaces that tend to bring people together
  100. spaces that tend to bring people together
    sociopetal
  101. sociofugal
    spaces that discourage interaction or social contact
  102. spaces that discourage interaction or social contact
    sociofugal
  103. 4 different types of personal spaces
    • intimate distance - physical contact to about 6"-18"
    • personal distance - 1.5' to 2.5'
    • social distance - 4' to 12'
    • public distance - 12' +
  104. catchment area
    land development dependant on (or affected by) some surrounding base population within a region.

    (building a school in an area based on the number of children. data is usually collected by census.)
  105. land development dependant on (or affected by) some surrounding base population within a region.
    catchment area
  106. topographic map shows
    • slope
    • contours
    • natural and artificial features
    • property boundries
    • existing buildings
    • utility poles
    • roads
    • trees
  107. contour interval
    vertical distance between adjacent contour lines
  108. vertical distance between adjacent contour lines
    countour interval
  109. slope formula
    G=(d/L)x100%
  110. typical slope percentages for various types of uses
    • 0%-4% - useable for all types of intense activity
    • 4%-10% - suitable for informal movement and outdoor activity and can be built on easily
    • 10%+ are difficult to climb or use for outdoor activity, expensive to build on
    • 25%+ erode easily, expensive to build on
  111. _____gallons =1 cubic foot
    7.48 gallons
  112. What is the largest seed in the world?
    coconut
  113. the number 40
    The number forty is the only number that, in the English language, has all of its letters in alphabetical order
  114. rats can not_____
    vomit
  115. A pipe 2 feet in diameter will allow four times more fluid to pass through it than a pipe 1 foot in diameter.
    awesome!
  116. Oak trees do not have acorns until they are ___ years old or older.
    50 years
  117. what is considered a high watertable?
    6' to 8' below grade
  118. topsoil
    mixture of mineral and organic material
  119. soil is classified according to _______ and is either organic or inorganic.
    grainsize
  120. soil grainsize classifications
    • gravel - 2mm + diameter
    • sands - 0.05mm to 2mm diameter
    • silt - .002mm to 0.05mm diameter
    • clay - under .002 mm diameter
  121. properites of clay soil
    smooth and floury when dry, plastic and sticky when wet
  122. properties of silt soil
    grains are invisible but can be felt as smooth
  123. sands and gravels
    • excellent for construction loads and drainage
    • excellent for sewage drain fields
    • unsuitable for landscaping
  124. silt is
    • stable when dry or damp but unstable when wet.
    • swells and heaves when frozen and compressed under a load
    • generally building foundations extend below it
  125. clay
    • expands when wet and is subject to slippage
    • poor for foundations (unless it can be kept dry)
    • poor for landscaping
    • unsuitable for drainage
  126. peat and organic soil
    • excellent for landscaping
    • unsuitable for building foundations
  127. four categories of roads
    • local
    • collector
    • arterial
    • expressway
  128. local streets
    • lowest capacity
    • provide direct access to building site

    (ex. 5518 cahalan drive)
  129. collector streets
    • connect local streets to arterial streets
    • not intended for through traffic
    • intersections of local and collector roads may be controlled by stop signs

    (ex. cahalan avenue)
  130. arterial streets
    • collector and arterial intersections controlled with stop lights
    • major continuous circulation routes
    • carry large amounts of traffic on 2 or 3 lanes
    • usually connect expressways
    • parking on them is typically not allowed
    • direct access from arterial streets to building sites should be avoided

    (ex. san tomas expressway)
  131. describe expressways
    • limited access roads designed to move large volumns of traffic
    • intersections have ramp systems
    • pedestrian access is not allowed
  132. access to site should be a min of _____ to an intersection
    150'
  133. horizontal and vertical alignment
    names of how roads are laid out
  134. max grade on a street
    10%
  135. service access general design aspects
    • ideally be seperate from automobile and ped access
    • loading docks generally 10'-12' wide and 40' long with 14' vertical clearance
    • min turning radius of 60'
  136. hardpan
    unbroken mixture of clay, sand and gravel

    (it is a good base for buildings)
  137. unbroken mixture of clay, sand and gravel
    hardpan
  138. shale and slate
    soft rocks with fine texture
  139. soft rocks with fine texture
    slate and shale
  140. boulders
    rocks that have broken off bedrock
  141. rocks that have broken off bedrock
    boulders
  142. bedrock
    solid rock that forms the earth's crust
  143. solid rock that forms the earth's crust
    bedrock

    (highest bearing capacity of all soil types)
  144. standard penetration test (SPT)
    measure of the density of granular soils and consistency of some clays.
  145. test that measures the density of granular soils and consistency of some clays.
    standard penetration test (SPT)
  146. if more moisture is present under one area of the building than the other, what may occur
    differential settlement
  147. where would you use open-web matting
    against a foundation wall to relieve pressure (hydrostatic). water forced against the wall loses it pressure with it encounters the matting and drips to the drain tile.
  148. how would you relieve pressure against a floor slab?
    a gravel layer can be placed below the slab. waterproofing membrane and drain tiles can be used if there is a significant water problem
  149. to increase bearing capacity (or decrease settlement) what methods of soil treatment can be used?
    • drainage - can increase strength of soil, prevent hydrostatic pressure
    • fill - unusable soil removed and replace. needs to be compacted (proctor test)
    • compaction - if existing soil only requires compaction
    • densification - on site comopaction using vibration o dropping heavy weights and filling the voids with sand.
    • surcharging - loading the soild with fill material (ex. gravel) to settle the soil. material is removed before constuction begins.
  150. angle of natural repose
    max angle for changing grades without using retaining walls
  151. 2 common soil tests fo bearing capacity
    borings and test pits
  152. bore samples test can include
    • strength tests of bearing capacity
    • resistance to lateral pressure
    • slope stability
    • compressibility
    • grain size
    • specific gravity
  153. what are test pits
    trenches dug that allow visual inspection of the soil strata. only can be dug to about 10' deep.
  154. auger borings
    raise samples of the soil by using a auger bit (can not penetrate hard obstructions)
  155. wash borings
    water jetted through pipe that forces material up (samples are mixed and hard to analyse) good test for hard soils.
  156. soil load tests
    building a platform on a site and placing loads in it observing settlement.
  157. what can be determined from soil tests
    • allowable soil bearing pressure
    • reccomended foundation type to use
  158. two difficulties of hydrostatic pressure
    • put additional loads on structural elements
    • makes waterproofing difficult
  159. long and narrow excavations
    trenching
  160. rough grading vs finish grading
    • rough grading is done prior to construction
    • finish grading is done after (landscaping, typ top soil)
  161. excavations used for deep diggin
    • shoring - vertical beams (soldier beams, wide flange) and horizontal timbers (brest boards, cribbing) uses wales and tie backs
    • bracing - vertical sheeting supported by a continuios wale which is supported by a diagonal brace, supported by a heel
  162. what the f*@! is underpinning?
    method to temp. support existing foundations while being repaired
  163. what the f*@# is a drain inlet for?
    allows stomwater to run directly into the storm sewer.
  164. how often should expansion joints be placed in a concrete slab?
    every 20' with control joints every 5'
  165. stormwater management is designed to
    • reduce stormwater runoff pollutant loads
    • discharge volumes
    • peak flow discharge rates
  166. calculating cost index
    larger cost index/lower cost index= x.x then multiply that number by the expected const cost
  167. soil liquefaction
    occurs when the effective stress of a soil is reduced to essentially zero, which corresponds to a complete loss of shear strength.
  168. when the effective stress of a soil is reduced to essentially zero, which corresponds to a complete loss of shear strength.
    soil liquefaction
  169. plasticity
    some fine-grained soils lose and subsequently regain approximately 99% of their inherent shear resistance to sliding as they absorb or lose water.Significantly plastic soils can be transformed from as solid, to a putty-like and ultimately fluid-like state byadding water to the matrix of the soil. In the languageof geotechnical engineering increasing the moisturecontent of a plastic soil reduces the soil’s shearresistance to sliding. High plasticity soils (soils mostsimilar to high quality pottery clay) turn into stickymud when mixed with water
  170. fine-grained soils lose and subsequently regain approximately 99% of their inherent shear resistance to absorb or lose water.
    plasticity
  171. easements
    right of one party to use a portion of land of another in a particular way

    • types of easements
    • 1.utility
    • 2. access
    • 3. support
    • 4. joint use
    • 5. scenic
    • 6. conservation
  172. right of way
    legal right of a person to traverse land belonging to another. (ex. streets, sidewalks)
  173. deed restrictions (restrictive covenants)
    provisions that restrict the use of property by the buyer.

    (to maintain desired uniformity)
  174. two types of deed restrictions
    • affirmative covenant - requires the buyer to perform a specific duty in the future
    • conditional convenant - the title to the porperty goes bact to the original owner is the restrictions in the deed are not followed.
  175. good site for soild remediation
    www.moretrench.com
  176. what does "in situ" mean?
    in position.

    in regards to soil remediation
  177. soil vapor extration (remediation)
    This technique, as the name implies, is the extraction of contaminants in vapor form from soils above the water table by applying a vacuum through a system of wells installed near the contamination source to pull vapors to the surface. SVE is appropriate for contaminants that tend to volatilize or evaporate more readily. Air sparging is often used in conjunction with soil vapor extraction to increase air flow in the unsaturated zone and thus improve the rate of removal of the contaminants.
  178. air sparging soil remediation
    Air sparging involves the injection of contaminant-free air into a subsurface saturated zone. This enables hydrocarbons to transfer from a dissolved state to vapor which is then vented through the unsaturated zone.
  179. Permeable reactive wall soil remediation
    Permeable reactive walls are passive systems that allow groundwater to flow through specified treatment media. Contaminants in the groundwater react with the medium and are degraded, precipitated or absorbed.
  180. Chemical oxidation soil remediation
    Chemical oxidation is a process by which oxidants (typically hydrogen peroxide or potassium permanganate) are introduced into the contaminated medium through a well or other method. The oxidants act to either destroy the contaminants or convert them to inert compounds.
  181. Dual Phase Extraction (DPE) water remediation
    Dual Phase Extraction (DPE) systems apply a strong vacuum to the subsurface through screened recovery wells. The technique simultaneously removes groundwater and free-phase petroleum hydrocarbons, which are then collected and treated. DPE systems can enhance groundwater and product recovery rates, particularly in layered, fine-grained soils.
  182. what does an Enviornment Impact Report/Statement (EIR or EIS) predict
    how a developement will affect the environment, including the AIR, WATER, LAND, WILDLIFE. Also other affects from neighboring buildings (glare, blocking sunlight etc)

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