Bone 2.txt

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Bone 2.txt
2011-04-21 23:44:29
Bone Path Exam4

Lab Notes
Show Answers:

  1. What's the principle demographic for Ewing Sarcoma?
    10-15 y/o white male
  2. What are the clinical presentation of Ewing Sarcoma?
    Pain, mass formation, inflammation symptoms
  3. What's the metatsatsis profile of Ewing's Sarcoma?
    Metastasizes early (lung & bones)
  4. What's the 5-year survival of Ewing's sarcoma post surgery/chemo/radioation therapy?
  5. What's the most common location of ewing's sarcoma?
    Diaphysis of long bones of extremties (femur/tibia)
  6. What's radiologic finding of ewing's sarcoma?
    "Onionskin layering" of new bone around tumor
  7. What's the cellular pattern of ewing's sarcoma?
    • Small round blue cells larger than lymphocytes
    • Low mitotic index
  8. What's the staining characteristics of ewing's sarcoma?
    PAS+, light/dark pattern
  9. What's the genetic expression of Ewing's sarcomas?
    • t(11;22) translocation - PNET & Ewings
    • Overexpression of MIC2 gene (CD 99)
  10. What's the difference between Ewing's and PNET?
    Homer Wright Rosettes in PNETs
  11. What's the principal demographic of Giant cell tumors of bone?
    20-40 y/o Chinese female
  12. What's the metastasis profile of Giant cell bone tumors?
  13. What's the most common location of involvement for giant cell tumors of bone?
    • Deisal femur, proxima tibia, distal radius, sacrum
    • Metaphyseo-epipyseal portion of bone extending to subchondral/articular cartilage
  14. What's the histological characteristics of giant cell tumors of bone?
    Hypercellular with numerous multinucleated ginat cells (look like osteoclasts)
  15. What's the clinical presentation of osteomyelitis?
    malaise, chills, fever, leukocutosis, pain
  16. How is osteomyelitis diagnosed?
    • biopsy of infected bone
    • treat even when no organism is found
  17. What are the most common infectious agents of ostomyelitis?
    • Staph aureus - most common in kids
    • Salmonella - sickle cell anemia
    • IV abuse/GU infections - Gram negatives
  18. What's the treatment for osteomyelitis?
    5-25% fail to resolve -_ surgeical removal
  19. Where is the most common site of pyrogenic osteomyelitis?
    Metaphysis --> lifting of periostium --> inschemia & necrosis
  20. What's sequestrum & involucrum?
    • Sequestrum: bone necrosis
    • Invlucrum: new bone formation surrounding sequestrum
  21. What are complications of chronic osteomyelitis?
    • Squamous Cell Carcinoma (due to inflammation)
    • Amyloidosis (AA)
    • Pathologic fractures, endocarditis, sepsis, sarcoma
  22. What are common paths of bacteria to bone?
    Hematogenous or direct contact (trauma)
  23. What are bone-related clinical signs of Vitamin D deficiency?
    • Widened epophyseal plates (writst, kennes, ankels), decreased mineralization of bone
    • Bowing of legs, rosary of ribs, flattening of skull/pectus
    • Delayed fontanelle closure, delayed teeth erruption
  24. What are non-bone symptoms of vitamin D deficiency?
    Hypocalcemia, heart failure, myelofibrosis, pancytopenia
  25. What's the differnece between osteomalacia and rickets?
    • Osteomalacia: adults; softening of bone (osteopenia), increased fracture risk
    • No growth plates --> no rickets symptoms
  26. What's the difference between ostomalacia nd osteoporosis?
    • Osteomalacia: minerlaization defect; pain possible with hydration of matrix
    • Osteoporosis: loss of bone mass; no bone pain
  27. What's the histological difference seen in osteomalacia?
    Non-minearlized stains pink vs. violet (darker) in mineralized bone
  28. What is Ollier disease?
    What's it associated with?
    • multiple enchondromas
    • soft tissue hemangiomas (Maffucci sundrome)
  29. What is maffucci syndrome? What risk does it carry?
    • Soft tissue hemangiomas in multiple enchondromas
    • Increased risk of malignancies (ovarian carcinoma and brain gliomas)
  30. What is fibrous dysplasia of bone?
    • benign lesion
    • mono/poly-ostotic
    • localized developmental arrest of bone growth
  31. What are the clinical presentation of fibrous displasio of bone?
    • Monostotic: asymptomatic
    • Polyostotic: deformities
  32. What's benign/malignant neoplasm of adipose?
    lipoma/ liposarcoma
  33. What's benign/malignant neoplasm of blood vessel?
  34. What's benign/malignant neoplasm of smooth muscle?
  35. What's benign/malignant neoplasm of striated muscle?
  36. What's benign/malignant neoplasm of nerve sheath?
    neurilemoma/malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor