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- 1585 – Lost Colony – Croatan – Sir Walter
Land Ordinance of 1785
- A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Provided for the
- orderly surveying and distribution of land belonging to the U.S.
Northwest Ordinance, 1787
A major success of the Articles of Confederation. Set up the framework of a government for the Northwest territory. The Ordinance provided that the Territory would be divided into 3 to 5 states, outlawed slavery in the Territory, and set 60,000 as the minimum population for statehood
- Occurred in the winter of 1786-7 under the Articles of Confederation.
- Poor, indebted landowners in Massachusetts blocked access to courts and
- prevented the government from arresting or repossessing the property of
- those in debt. The federal government was too weak to help Boston
- remove the rebels, a sign that the Articles of Confederation weren’t
- working effectively.
- Caused by a post-war decrease in production and increase in
- unemployment, and also caused by tough interstate commerce rules which
- decreased trade.
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government
- all human beings have a right to life, liberty, and
- property and that governments exist to protect those rights. He believed that a contract existed between a government and its people, and if the government failed to uphold its end of the contract, the
- people could rebel and institute a new government.
James Madison, "Father of the Constitution"
- His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan,
- which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for
- drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
- At the Constitutional Convention, larger states wanted to follow the Virginia Plan, which based each state’s representation in Congress on state population. Smaller states wanted to follow the New Jersey Plan,
- which gave every state the same number of representatives. The convention compromised by creating the House and the Senate, and using
- both of the two separate plans as the method for electing members of
Virginia Plan vs. New Jersey Plan vs. Connecticut Plan
- The Virginia Plan called for a two-house Congress with each state’s representation based on state population.
- The New Jersey Plan called for a one-house Congress in which each state had equal representation.
- The Connecticut Plan called for a two-house Congress in which both types of representation would be applied, and is also known as the Compromise
- The South’s slave trade was guaranteed for at least 20 years after the
- ratification of the Constitution. Slaves were considered 3/5 of a
- person when determining the state population.
- Opposed the ratification of the Constitution because more power
- to the federal government and less to states, did not
- ensure individual rights. Many wanted to keep the Articles of
- Confederation. The Antifederalists were instrumental in obtaining
- passage of the Bill of Rights as a prerequisite to ratification of the
- Constitution in several states. After the ratification, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican
- (or simply Republican) party.
Glorious Revolution, 1688
- King James II’s policies (converting to catholicism, repressive trials "Bloody Assizes," and
- maintianing a standing army) outraged the people of England that
- Parliament asked him to resign and invited King William of the
- Netherlands (who became known as William II in England), to take over
- the throne. King James II left peacefully (after his troops deserted
- him) and William II and Mary II took the throne
- without any war or bloodshed.
Differences between French and British colonization
- The British settled mainly along the coast, where they started farms,
- towns, and governments. As a general rule, whole families emigrated.
- The British colonies had little interaction with the local Indians
- (aside from occasional fighting). The French colonized the interior,
- where they controlled the fur trade. Most of the French immigrants were
- single men, and there were few towns and only loose governmental
- authority. The French lived closely with the Indians, trading with them
- for furs and sometimes taking Indian wives.
Queen Anne’s War, 1702-1713
The second of the four wars known generally as the French and Indian Wars, it arose out of issues left unresolved by King Williams' War (1689-1697) and was part of a larger European conflict known as the War of the Spanish Succession. Britain, allied with the Netherlands, defeated France and Spain to gain territory in Canada, even though the British had suffered defeats in most of their military operations in North America.
War of Jenkin’s Ear (1739-1743)
- Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights.
- Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border.
- The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut
- off by the Spanish.
King George’s War (1744-1748)
- Land squabble between France and Britain. France tried to retake Nova
- Scotia (which it had lost to Britain in Queen Anne’s War). The war
- ended with a treaty restoring the status quo, so that Britain kept Nova
Treaty of Paris, 1763
- Treaty between Britain, France, and Spain, which ended the Seven Years War (and the French and Indian War). France lost Canada, the land east
- of the Mississippi, some Caribbean islands and India to Britain. France also gave New Orleans and the land west of the Mississippi to Spain, to compensate it for ceeding Florida to the British.
Pontiac’s Rebellion, 1763
- An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an
- Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the
- western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The
- attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Declatory Act, 1766
- Passed at the same time that the Stamp Act was repealed, the Act
- declared that Parliament had the power to tax the colonies both
- internally and externally, and had absolute power over the colonial
- A Massachusetts attorney and politician, strong believer in colonial independence, argued against the Stamp Act, involved in various patriot groups. from Massachusetts, he urged
- the Second Continental Congress to declare independence. He helped
- draft and pass the Declaration of Independence. Adams later served as
- the second President of the United States.
supporters of the Constitution: mostly wealthy and opposed anarchy. Their leaders included Jay, Hamilton, and Madison, who wrote the Federalist Papers in support of the Constitution
Federalist Papers, Jay, Hamilton, Madison
essays by John Jay, Alexander Hamilton, and James Madison, explained the importance of a strong central government. It was published to convince New York to ratify the Constitution.
Judiciary Act, 1789
Created the federal court system, allowed the president to create federal courts and to appoint judges.
Sec. of the Treasury Hamilton
A leading Federalist, he supported industry and strong central government. He created the National Bank and managed to pay off the U.S.’s early debts through tariffs and the excise tax on whiskey.
Sec. of State Jefferson
A leading Democratic-Republican, he opposed Hamilton’s ideas. Washington tended to side with Hamilton, so Jefferson resigned.
Hamilton’s Economics Program
- Designed to pay off the U.S.’s war debts and stabilize the economy: United States should become a leading international commercial power.
- His programs: National Bank, the establishment of the U.S.’s credit rate, increased tariffs, and an excise tax on whiskey. Also, he insisted that the federal government assume debts incurred by the states during the war.