ANTH2700 T7 3

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ANTH2700 T7 3
2011-04-23 18:10:37
ANTH2700 T7

ANTH2700 T7 3
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  1. Locomotion using four limbs, with hands and feet movinh on a surface such as the ground or the top of a branch or tree.
  2. Posture with the body held parallel to the ground.
  3. A form of quadrupedialism in which the animal is walkng along a branch, grasping with both hands and feet.
    branch running and walking
  4. A form of quadrupadialism that takes plac on the ground as opposed to in the trees.
    ground running and walking
  5. Locomotor pattern involving extensive use of the hands, but not the tail, in leaping in a basically quadrupedal animal.
    Old World semibrachiation
  6. Locomotor pattern involving extensive use of hands and prehensile tail, to suspend and propel the body in species otherwise quadrupedal.
    New World semibrachiation
  7. Locomotor pattern in which the animal moves slowelyand cauciously without leaping.
    slow climbing
  8. Vertical posture
  9. anthropologists compare the fossil record with the anotomical features, chromosomes, proteins, and DNA of living primates to comstruct the...
    ...hypothetical common ancestors of contamporary primates.
  10. the five basic forms of quadrupedialism...
    • branch running and walking
    • ground running and walking
    • Old World semibrachiation
    • New World semibrachiation
    • slow climbing
  11. Tarsiers and many Prosimmians what kind of posture? they do what kind of locomotion?...
    • orthograde (upright)
    • vertical climbing and leaping
  12. monkeys' main locomotor pattern...
  13. apes' main locomotor behavior...
    suspensory behavior
  14. A method of of locomotion in which the animal clings vertically to a branch and moves between branchesby leaping vertically from one to another. The animal moves on the ground by hopping or moves bipedally.
    vertical clinging and leaping
  15. Form of locomation and posture whereby animals suspend themselves underneatha branch.
    suspensory behavior
  16. Hand-over hand locomotion along a branch with the body suspended underneath the branch by the arms.
    true brachiation
  17. Locomotor pattern found among orangutans, who often sespend themselves under branches and move slowely using both forelimbs and hindlimbs.
    quadrumanos locomotion
  18. Semierect quadrupedialism found in chimpanzees and gorillas, with upper parts of the body supported by knuckles as opposed to palms.
    knuckle walking
  19. A form of locomation founr in humans in which the body is maintained in an upright posture on two legs while moving by means of a heel-toe stride.
    erect bipedalism
  20. Method of progression characteristic of humans where the heel strikes the ground first; the person pushes of the big toe.
    heel-toe stride
  21. The length of the humerus and radius relative to the length of the femur and tibia.
    intermembral index
  22. three changes from generalized quadruped skeleton to specialized horse skeleton (for high-speed running)
    • no clavicle (scapula attaches to ribcage)
    • fused radius and ulna
    • 5 digits became a hoof
  23. three retained generalized quadruped skeletal traits in the primate...
    • retained clavicle
    • five digits (fingers)
    • rotatable forearms (radius and ulna)
  24. trunk of quadrupadal monkeys...4
    • held pronograde
    • long and narrow
    • more lumbar vertebrae
    • relatively flexible
  25. trunk of hominoids...4
    • held orthograde
    • short and broad
    • fewer lumbar vertebrae
    • relatively inflexible
  26. sholder girdle of quadrupedal monkey...2
    • scapula on the side of the trunk
    • head of humerus pointing backward
  27. Sholder girdle of hominoid...2
    • long clavicles extand backwards
    • so scapula lies on the back
    • humerus head points inward
  28. Hominoid scapula...
    • relatively shallow
    • greater rotation than monkeys
    • (ancestral) suspensory behavior
  29. quadrupedal monkey intermembral index...1 + explaination
    • nearly 100 (or slightly less)
    • (limbs of nearly the same length, or slightly longer legs)
  30. intermembral index formula...
  31. ape intermembral index...
    greater than 100
  32. A curve that forms in the lumbar region of the spine in humans.
    lumbar curve
  33. In humans, the largest muscle of the body; acts as an extensor, extending the leg in running and climbing.
    gluteus maximus
  34. Muscles that move a part of the body away from the midline of the body.
  35. 2 muscles of the pelvis that in monkeys and apes acts as extensors, but in humans acts as abductors.
    • gluteus minimus
    • gluteus medius
  36. A muscle that straightens out the bones about a joint.
  37. The length of the radius relative to the length of the humerus.
    brachial index
  38. The length of the tibia relative to the length of the fumur.
    crural index
  39. A grip in which an object is held between the fingers and the palm with the thumb reinforcing the fingers.
    power grip
  40. A grip in which an object is held between one or more fingers with the thumb fully opposed to the fingertips.
    precision grip
  41. facilitates habitual erect bipedalism in humans, (as opposed to chimps bent knees)...
    locking knee joint
  42. human pelvic modifications...2
    • shortened, broadened ilium
    • new position of sacrum
    • shift weight more directly to legs
  43. new position of human sacrum...
    closer to the point of articulation between the femur and the pelvis
  44. in apes, all three gluteus muscles act as...
    ...which one is largest in chimps?..
    • extensors
    • gluteus medius
  45. in humans, which two gluteus muscles act as abductors?
    • gluteus medius
    • gluteus minimus
  46. human intermembral index...(pg. 167)
    ...brachial index...
    ...crural index...
    • 72
    • 76
    • 83
  47. humerus/radius*100
    brachial index
  48. femur/tibia*100
    crural index
  49. specialized features of human foot...4
    • fairly infexible
    • limited grasping
    • arch
    • short toes
  50. why does the human thy extend downwards at an angle?
    to put the knees closer together directly under the body.
  51. what have the spider monkey and the colobus monkey (semi-brachiators) both lost?
  52. features of primate hands...5
    • pentadactalism
    • hairless palm
    • epidermal ridges
    • nails
    • dense nerve endings (tactile pads)
  53. In cattarhines, the saddle configuration between the carpal and metacarpal allows for an...
    opposable thumb
  54. all primates are capable of this kind of grip...
    power grip
  55. for fine manipulation; the animal holds an object between the thumb ans fingers...
    precision grip
  56. stone tools; the earliest archeological materials date...
    2.5 m.y.a.