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what is the common facture site of the femur?
What is the Longest and Strongest Bone?
What are 2 names for the hip bones?
ossa coxae and innominate bones
The femur is the ____________ and _____________ bone in the body.
longest and strongest
The __________ _____________ is the deep depression on the head of the femur where major ligaments attach.
The area between the head and greater trochanter is the _________ and is also the most common site of fracture in the femur.
The greater trochanter is located ____________ and _______________ to the femoral shaft.
superior and lateral
The lesser trochanter is located ____________ and ________________ to the femoral neck and shaft.
medially and posteriorly
The neck of the femur to the shaft is approximately __________ degrees.
The longitudinal plane of the femur is approximately ___________ degrees from vertical.
The neck and head of the femur lies anteriorly by approximately __________ degrees in relation to the body of the femur.
Pelvis Serves As?
the bast of the trunk and forms the connection between the vertebral column and the lower limbs
Pelvis consists of?
- 2 - ossa coxae AKA innominate bones
Differentiate between pelvic girdle and pelvis
- Pelvic Girdle- is just the 2 hip bones ( innominate bones or ossa coxae)
- Pelvis- is all 4 of the bones (ossa coxae, sacrum, and coccyx)
Fusion of the hip bones occurs during adolescence at the _____________________.
deep cup shaped cavity that accepts the head of the femur to form the hip bone
The ______________ is located superior to the acetabulum.
The _____________ is located inferior and posterior to the acetabulum
The _____________ is located inferior and anterior to the acetabulum.
What are the two important positioning landmarks of the ilium?
iliac crest and ASIS
Ischium is divided into the ___________ and ____________
body and ramus
Greater trochanter is approximately at the same level as the ___________________________________.
superior border of symphysis pubis
Ischial tuberosity is about _____________ inches below the symphysis pubis.
1 1/2 - 2
Iliac crest lies at _____________ vertebral level.
The ____________ divides the pelvic area into the true and false pelvis.
_________________ was done in the past to determine fetal head measurements to ensure the fetus would fit in the birth canal during delivery.
List 3 characteristics of female:
- wider, more shallow, and more flared
- obtuse angle
- more rounder and larger
List 3 characteristics of Male:
- narrow deeper less flared
- acute angle
- more oval - heart shaped
Describe how the proximal femur will appear in the following positions:
Legs internally rotated 15-20 degrees:
Legs externally rotated:
Anatomic position (feet pointing straight up):
- internal: femoral heads and necks in profile- lesser trochanters not visible -true AP projection
- external: femoral necks greatly foreshortened less trochanters visible in profile internally
- anatomic: femoral necks partially forshortened lesser trochanter partially visible
locate parts of the femur?
Angles of the femur?
Neck to shaft (≈125°)
Anterior angle (≈15° to 2 0°)
parts of ilium
The depression or pit
located at the center of the femoral head is the
Which of the bones of the pelvic girdle is the largest?
Which of the following bony landmarks is located posterior to the acetabulum?
The “false pelvis” forms the
birth canal in females.
false the true pelvis does
The pubic arch of the male
pelvis forms an acute angle (<90°).
the joint classification of the symphysis pubis?
amphiarthrodial or the symphysis pubis is fused; therefor it is not an actual joint
Which bony landmark should not be visible on a correctly
positioned AP pelvis (nontrauma)?
Where is the CR centered for
an AP pelvis projection?
midway between ASIS and symphysis pubis
To minimize distortion of
the femoral neck for an AP bilateral “frog-leg” projection, the lower limbs
should be abducted
What type of CR angle is
required for the AP axial “outlet” projection for a male patient?
20 to 30 cephalad
How much is the affected
side rotated for the PA axial oblique projection (Teufel method)?
35 to 40
How is the cassette aligned
for an axiolateral (Danelius-Miller method) projection?
parallel to femoral neck
Which of the following
projections is best suited for the patient with limited movement of both lower
limbs to demonstrate a lateral perspective of the proximal femur?