Biology

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tay
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81123
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Biology
Updated:
2012-01-16 00:12:00
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Final
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Final
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  1. Describe the two main points Darwin made in his book, The Origin of Species.
    • mechanism for evolution
    • species diversity is a product of evolution.
  2. Why were Darwin’s ideas on evolution so
    revolutionary?
  3. Define gradualism vs.
    catastrophism.
    Gradualism- cheange in earth over long periods of time.

    Capastrophism- theory of fossil formation by catastrophe.
  4. What was wrong with Lamarck’s
    theories on evolution?
    Species change at the population level, not the individual level.
  5. Describe the theory of inheritance of acquired traits (also called “use and disuse theory”), who
    incorporated it into his theories, and give an example as discussed in
    class.
    is that if the organs are used, they will stay as the trait, if not than it will disappear.

    this was lamarch's theory. ex: giraffe.
  6. Which location did Darwin visit that
    was pivotal in his developing his theory on evolution?
    Galapagos.
  7. What did Darwin realize from looking at the
    Galapagos finches?
    artificial selection was accounted for the different types of finches.
  8. Why did Darwin get the credit for
    evolutionary theory vs. Wallace?
    He has been working on it for more than a decade.
  9. True or False:
    According to Darwin’s book, evolution explains life’s unity and
    diversity.
    true
  10. True or false: Natural selection is the result of adaptive
    evolution.
    false
  11. What is the tree of life? How does it fit with Darwin’s views on life?
    Darwin envisioned the history of life as a tree. branching points represent the origins of new lineages; branches that do not reach the hope, represent extinct groups.
  12. Darwin’s logic in his book can be
    summed into several inferences based on 5 observations. What are they and what do they mean?
    • - most organisms produce more than one or tow offspring.
    • -populations do not increase in size indefinitely.
    • -food and other resources are limited for most populations.
    • - Individuals within populations exhibit variability in many characteristics.
    • - Many variations have a genetic that is inherited by subsequent generations.
  13. What is artificial selection? Give 2 examples as discussed in class.
    • process of improving organisms by selective breeding.
    • ex; dogs, cats, annimal husbandry farming.
  14. Describe how natural selection is the mechanism
    by which species evolve.




    1. What is artificial
      selection? Give 2 examples as
      discussed in class.

    .....
  15. True or false: Evolutionary theory provides a
    cohesive explanation for many kinds of observations.
    true
  16. Define: Homology, analogy,
    comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, vestigial organs and give
    examples of each.
    • Homology - similar in structure and form and has a common ancestor. EX bertibrate fore limbs.
    • analogy- similar in function only. EX. birds and bat wings.
    • comparative anatomy-
    • comparative embryology- has shown embryos from major groups developmentally similar. Ex. Gill pouches in humans and fish.
    • vestigial organs and give
  17. True or false:
    Humans are more closely related to chickens than to pigs.
    False
  18. True or false:
    Humans are more closely related to chimpanzees than to monkeys.
    True.
  19. How does biogeography play into
    the theory of evolution?
  20. True or false: natural selection acts on
    individuals, but only populations evolve.
    true
  21. What is microevolution? What type of variation contributes to evolution?
    genetic variation within a population.
  22. What is the smallest unit of
    evolution?
    population
  23. population - individuals of a species living in the same time and place.
    natural selection- differential survivorship or reproduction of individuals with different genotypes.
    sexual selection- choice of mates based on their pheotypes and genotypes, does not directly affect allele freqencies, but usually prevents genetic equilibrium.
    gene pool- all alleles at all loci in a population
    genetic drift- random changes in allele frequencies caused by chance events; reduces genetic variation, especially in small populations, can eliminate alleles.
    bottleneck effect- reduction in alleles due to population reduction.
    founder effect- due to a few individuals starting a new population.
    microevolution- genetic variation within a population
    genotype frequency- p^2 +2pd+ q^2 = 1
    allele frequency- P + Q= 1
    mutation- spontaneous heritable variation in DNA, major source of heritable varaiation.
  24. What is the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem?
    What do p, q, p2, q2, 2pq stand for? What is the difference between p and p2?
    prove that evolution does not occur.

    • p^2= homo dominant
    • 2pq= heteroqygous
    • q^2= homo recessive
  25. Name 5 conditions for non-evolving
    populations in the Hardy-Weinberg Theorem.
    • -no mutation
    • -no migration
    • -population infinte in size
    • -all genotypes free of selection
    • - random mating with respect to genotype
  26. Know the 2 Hardy-Weinberg formulas and
    be able to figure out all the variables involved in the formula if I give you one allele or one genotype frequency (practice questions in your lab manual and
    like those in lecture).
    easyyy
  27. True or false: Hardy-Weinberg Theorem describes a
    population where allele frequencies change regularly.
    False.
  28. Name 3 major factors that alter allele
    frequencies and bring about evolutionary change.
  29. Understand how the bottleneck effect
    can increase our understanding of how human activity affects other species.
  30. True or false: Gene flow tends to reduce
    differences between populations over time.
    true
  31. Name 3 modes of selection and how do
    they apply to a population of white and black mice?
    • directional selection- favors individuals near one end of phenotypic spectrum.
    • stabilizing selection- favors indiviuals with intermediate phenotypes.
    • -disruptive selection- favors individuals with exreme phenotypes.
  32. How are recessive alleles “hidden” in
    a population?
    cause the are rare now.
  33. Genetic variation is due to what 2
    factors?
  34. True or false: Genetic drift reduces genetic
    variability within populations.

    True or false: Not all populations have a genetic
    structure.
    True

    False

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