ANTH2700 T8 1

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  1. Two rounded projections on either side of the foramen magnum that fit into a pair of sockets on the top of the spine, thus articulating the skull with the spine.
    occipital condyles
  2. A large opening in the occipital bone at the base of the skull through which the spinal chord passes.
    foramen magnum
  3. The muscle in the back of the neck that functions to hold the head up. In primates with heavy facial skeletons, it attaches to nucal crest.
    nuchal muscle
  4. Flange of the occipital region of the skull that serves as the attachment of the nucal musculature of the back of the neck.
    nuchal crest
  5. A jutting forward of the facial skeleton and jaws.
  6. number of seperate bone in the human skull... teeth?
    • 28
    • 32
  7. in pronograde animals; position of occipital condyles and foramen magnum...
    ...condition of nuchal apparatus...2
    • far to rear of skull
    • powerful nucal muscles
    • prominent nucal crest
  8. in orthograde animals; position of occipital condyles and foramen magnum...
    ...condition of nucal apparatus in gorillas...2 humans...
    • forward on the skull (central in humans)
    • powerful nucal muscles (to support facial skeleton)
    • prominent nucal crest
    • absence of prominent nucal crest (balanced position of skull)
  9. location of the eyes of most primates...
    on the front of the head
  10. skeletal feature of the anthropoid eye...
    encased in eye socket (closed orbits)
  11. primates general reduction in olfaction results in....
    reduced prognathism (flattening of the face)
  12. prognathism of the baboon and gorilla are the result of...
    the massiveness of the teeth and jaw
  13. within the middle ear, the eardrum is supported by an incomplete bony ring that is encased in a closed chamber...
    {replace the blue words}
    • tymapnic membrane
    • ectotmpanic bone + three middle ear bones
    • auditory bulla
  14. The anterior of the three swellings in the hollow nerve cord of the primative vertabrate brain formed by a thickening of the wall of the nerve cord.
  15. The middle fo the three swellings in the hollow nerve cord of the primative vertebrate brainformed by a thickening of the wall of the nerve cord.
  16. The posterior of three swellings in the hollow nerve cord of the primative vertebrate brain formed by a thickening of the wall of the nerve cord.
  17. Grey covering on the cerebrum of some vertebrates; site of higher mental processes
  18. the "greymatter" of the brain; the center of conscious evaluation, planning, skill, speech, and other higher mental activities.
    cerebral cortex
  19. features of the primative vertebrate brain...4
    • hollow nerve cord
    • forebrain swelling
    • midbrain swelling
    • hindbrain swelling
  20. the three sections that developed in the forebrain...
    • thalamus
    • cerebral hemispheres
    • olfactory bulbs
  21. the special structure that developed in the midbrain...
    optic lobes
  22. the two structures that developed in the hindbrain...
    • cerebellum
    • medula oblongata
  23. beginning in reptiles, this structure appears as a grey covering on the cerebrum...
  24. in modern mammals, visual stimuli are revieved by the...
    cerebral cortex
  25. Pattern of growth whereby different parts of the body grow at different rates with respect to each other.
    allometric growth
  26. A number reflecting the increase in brain sixe over and beyond that explainable by increase in body size.
    encephalization quotient
  27. The knowledge and images that originate in an individual's brain that are transferred by speech (and in the last 5000 years writing) to the brains of others.
    social intelligence
  28. The volume of the brain case of the skull.
    cranial capacity
  29. A cast of the inside of the brain case.
    endocranial cast
  30. the surface area of the cerebral cortex of the suborder Anthropoidea is increased by...
  31. in humans, th cerbral cortex covers these two areas of brain...
    • olfactory bulbs
    • midbrain
  32. two behaviors that have affected the evolution of the human brain...
    • tool making
    • language
  33. two cortical areas of the human brain that are at least three times more extensive than they are in ape brains...
    • those associated w/hand coordination
    • and language
  34. how long ago did humans start writing?
    5000 years ago
  35. average cranial capacity of modern humans...
    • 1350 cm3
    • 900-2000 cm3
  36. does brain size coorelate with "intelligence"?
  37. The premolars and molars.
    cheek teeth
  38. points on a tooth
  39. Animals that eat primarily insects; also members of the mammalian order incectivora.
  40. Animals that eat primarily leaves.
  41. Animals that eat a variety of different kinds of food.
  42. Formal designation of the types and numbers of teeth.
    dental formula
  43. the tooth row as seen from above
    dental arcade
  44. A space between teeth.
  45. Unicuspid first lower premolar with a shearing edge.
    sectorial permolar
  46. Pattern found on molar with five cusps seperated by grooves reminiscent of the letter Y.
    Y-5 pattern
  47. A bony buttress on the inner surface of the foremost part of the ape mandible, functioning to reinforce the mandible.
    simian shelf
  48. mammals are characterised by this kind of dentition in which regional teeth are differentiated into different kinds that serve different functions.
    ...and the development of two sets of teeth...
    • heterodonty
    • diplodonty
  49. primate tooth structure is fairly a. specialized b. unspecialized
    b. unspecialized
  50. primates that mostly eat seeds and grasses have a. smaller b. larger incisors that those that eat primarily fruit...
    a. smaller
  51. two functions of canines...
    • tearing, ripping, grasping, stabbing food
    • dysplay
  52. in what suborder are canines ofter larger in males than in females?
    suborder Anthropoidea
  53. most complex tooth
  54. dental formula for the common ancestor of living placental mammals...
  55. low cusped molars indicate what kind dietary pattern?
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ANTH2700 T8 1
ANTH2700 T8 1
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