ANTH2700 T8 2

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ANTH2700 T8 2
2011-04-22 19:50:56
ANTH2700 T8

ANTH2700 T8 2
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  1. well developed shearing crests indicate what diatary pattern?
  2. sharp crests on molars indicate what diatary pattern?
  3. Lemur dental formula...
  4. Cebid dental formula...
    ...marmoset dental formula...
  5. New world monkey dental formula...
    ...Old World Anthropoid...
  6. characteristics of ape dentition...5
    • parallel molars and per-molars
    • diastema
    • longer canine teeth
    • sectorial premolar
    • incisors implanted at angle (procumbant)
  7. in apes and in humans, the upper molar and lower molars contain hoe many cusps? of pattern?...
    • 4
    • 5
    • y-5
  8. who had thicker enamel? a. hominins b. apes
    a. hominins
  9. two features of an ape jaw...
    • two fused symmetrial halves
    • simian shelf (internal reinforcing butteress)
  10. human featre; result of shrunken jaw...
    chin (mentel protuberance)
  11. A muscle of chewing that arises on the side of the skull and inserts on the jaw.
  12. Ridge of bone along the midline of the top of the skull that serves for the attachment of the temporalis muscle.
    sagittal crest
  13. A muscle of chewing that arises on the zygomatic arch of the skull and inserts on the mandible.
  14. for the gorilla, a large termporlis muscle and a small brain case lead to the development of a...
    saggital crest
  15. since the temporalis passes under the zygomatic arch, a large temporalis would lead to...
    ...large teeth and jaw would lead to...
    • flairing zygomatics
    • robust zygomatics
  16. The comparative study of chromosomes/
    comparative cytogenetics
  17. The comparative study of molecules.
    comparative molecular biology
  18. three problems with comparative anatomy...
    • subjectivity
    • envoronmental influence on the phenotype
    • convergence
  19. number of chromosomes in Homo sapiens...
  20. is number of chromosomes evidence of evolutionary relationship?
  21. a composite karyotype of chimp and human shows...3
    • similar giesma-banding
    • homologous chromosomes
    • homologous genes in the same positions in both species
  22. which human chromosome has no chimp match? chimps have any no-matcch chromosomes?
    ...what is the theoretical explaination?
    • chromosome 2
    • yes, two small ones
    • the two fused since common ancestor
  23. chimps, apes, and the common ancestot all have how many chromosomes?
  24. when homologous protiens from divergent populations are compared, those with the most similarities (and the least amino acid substitutions) had the a. most recent b. most distant common ancestor?
    most recent
  25. we can reconstruct genetic code from protiens, because...
    ...and why dont all changes in genetic code result in amino acid substitution?
    • amino acid sequences refer to base pairs
    • because some amino acids have multiple codes.
    • amino acid secuence show minimum number of changes only
  26. a graphic representation of evolutionary relationships among species
    phylogenetic tree
  27. The principle that the most accurate phylogenetic tree is one that is based on the fewest changes in the genetic code.
    maximum parsimony principle
  28. the concept that changes in the structure of a protein or a stretch of DNA change at a constant rate when averaged over a period of time.
    "molecular clock" concept
  29. on what does the calibration of the "molocular clock" depend?
    dated fossils
  30. what can be estimated by measuring the amount of difference between proteins (or DNA) with the calibrated "molecular clock"?
    the time of divergence from the last common ancestor
  31. The comparative study of the genomes of different organisms.
    comparative genomics
  32. besides code, what other types of differences are found between genomes?
    • insertions
    • deletions
    • repetitions
    • epigenetic differences (timing and sequencing)
  33. some genes responsible for these things are present in humans and absent in chimps...
    • transmission of nerve signals
    • brain size
    • perception of smell
    • sperm production
  34. besides fossil record, how can timing of major evolutionary events be obtained?
    by estimating the time it takes for changes in the genome to occur.
  35. when is the estimated split between the human and chimpanzee lineages?
    6.5-5.5 m.y.a.
  36. A model that gives an explanation of why primates form groups based on the hypothesis that a group of individuals can defend access to resources such as food and keep other animle and other groups away from those resources better than an individual can.
    resource defense model
  37. A model that gives an explanation of why primates form groups based on the hypothesis that a group of individuals can protect themselves better or even ward off attacks from predators better than in individual animal could.
    predation model
  38. a person who studies primates
  39. primates that eat mostly fruit tend to live in what kind of social groups?...
    ...this is an example in support of which model?...
    • larger groups
    • resource-defense model
  40. semi-terresetrial primates tend to live in what size groups?...
    ...this example supports what model?...
    • large
    • predation model
  41. noctural primates tend to develop what kind of social group strategies?...2
    • solitary animals
    • small groups
  42. for diurnal primates what it the advantage of living in large groups?
    better chance of spotting a predator
  43. in terms of competition, reproductive success of females depends on...
    • access to food
    • access to females
  44. Primate social groups that are based on associations of females
    female-bonded kin group
  45. The area occupied by an animal or animal group.
    home range
  46. A social group, found among small-bodied apes and other primates, consisting of a single mated pair and their young offspring.
    monogamous pair
  47. describe the simple social grouping of many small nocturnal prosimmians and the orangutan...3
    • mother and immature offspring
    • home range overlaps with other groups
    • little contact with males
  48. three monogomous primate groups...
    • lemuriformes (Prosimii)
    • New World monkeys (suborder Anthropoidea-infraorder Platyrrhini)
    • gibbons (suborder Anthropoidea-infraorder Catarrhini superfamily Hominoidea family Hylobaditae)
  49. marmosets and tamarins young rearing features...
    • males care for pairs of twins
    • polyandrous groups
  50. A form of social organisation found in primates in which a female has multiple mates.
    polyandrous group
  51. A social unit consisting of a single male associated with several females...
    one-male group
  52. A subunit of a larger social group consisting of a male associated with two of more females.
  53. baboons, howler monkeys, galendas, and langurs form these two types of social groups...
    • single-male group
    • harem
  54. A social unit consisting of many adult males and females.
    multimale group
  55. Constantly changing form of social organization whereby large groupsundergo fission into smaller units and small units fuse into larger units in response to the activity of the group and the season of the year.
    fission-fusion society
  56. A study conducted ina natural habitat of an animal with minimal interfearence in the animal's life.
    field study
  57. baboons, macaques, Old world monkeys, colobus monkeys, and some New world monkeys exemplify this kins of social grouping...
    multimale groups
  58. behavior of males in multimale groups...
    ...of females...
    • migrate to neighboring groups at puberty
    • form close bonds
  59. social grouping typical of chimpanzees...
    fission-fusion society
  60. two disadvantages of field study...
    • takes a long time
    • relatively low data yield
  61. Group free-ranging primates that have become accostomed to humans because of the establishment of feeding stations.
    provisioned colony
  62. advantages of provisioned colony research...3
    • census data at the feeding station
    • indreased tolerance of observers
    • higher yield of data
  63. In primates, the activity of going through the furwith hand or teeth to remove insects, dirt, twigs, dead skin, ans so on, also acts as a dysplay of affection.
  64. self-grooming
  65. Grooming another animal
  66. Energetic, receptive activity engaged in primarily by infants and juveniles
  67. a group of juviniles within a larger social unit that engages in play behavior
    play group
  68. A physical activity that serves to threaten another animal. Some threat gestures are staring, shaking a branch, and lunging towward the other animal.
    threat gesture
  69. gibbon male-female pair grooming behavior...2
    • several times a day
    • reciprocal
  70. gibbon infancy...4
    • until 2-2.5y
    • weaned in a few months
    • little attention from adults
    • clings tightly to mom's fur