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  1. Reaction Time
    Interval between the presentation of a stimulus & the initiation of response
  2. Simple Reaction Time
    • 1 Stimulus - 1 response
    • eg. start of a race
  3. Choice Reaction Time
    • Many Stimuli - Many Responses
    • eg. ball may go up, down, left, right
  4. 3 Ways to Prevent Anticipation
    • Catch Trials (warning but no stimulus)
    • Vary Foreperiod
    • Minimum Reaction Time - 100 ms
  5. *Why is choice reaction time longer?*
    • CRT = Identify stimulus and response selection
    • SRT = focus of attention is narrower
    • SRT = pre-programming is possible
  6. Reaction Time vs Number of Options
    • Reaction time increases as number of choices increases
    • Attacking - wants to increase number of choices
    • Defending - wants to narrow choices
  7. *How many choices are there for a given number of stimulus responses?*
    • Everytime the # of stimulus response pair is doubled, the # of choices goes up by 1.
    • eg. 1SR pair = 0 choices
    • 2 SR pairs = 1 choice
    • 4 SR pairs = 2 chioces
    • 8 SR pairs = 3 choices
  8. *Valid precues lead to a faster RT because...*
    • attention on location
    • response preferation
  9. *Invalid precues lead to a slower RT becuase...*
    • reallocating attention
    • response supression
  10. Define: Time Pressure Situation
    • CRT situation where you don't know the exact stimulus and have to react as quickly as possible
    • -Seek Advance Information
    • -Contextual Cues & Body Language Cues
    • -Expectancy Developed
    • -Anticipate or Selectively Prepare
  11. Contextual Cues
    • Information about the particular situation
    • -Player Preferences
    • -Prior Knowledge
    • -Location of players on the field
    • -Team Strategies
    • -Playing Conditions
    • -Score in the game
  12. (TPS) Anticipate
    • You have moved BEFORE the event has occured
    • -Correct Anticipation:
    • --Eliminate RT, Reduce MT
    • -Incorrect Anticipation
    • --Increase RT, Increase MT
  13. (TPS) Selectively Prepare
    • You get ready, but wait for event to occur before you react
    • -Correctly Selectively Prepare:
    • --Reduce RT
    • -Incorrectly Selectively Prepare:
    • --Increase RT
  14. *Relationship between contextual information and a fake*
    • If fake is expected based on contextual information:
    • ---Fast RT - mobolize opponent
    • If fake is NOT expected based on contextual info:
    • ---Slow RT - freeze opponent
  15. *The Ability to Inhibit Irrelevant Information*
    As the Interstimulus Interval (ISI) gets longer, the probability of stopping the reaction decreases
  16. Simon Effect
    • Relevant Info : Direction
    • Irrelevant Info : Location

    • *We process Location information very quickly
    • ---so we need to supress/inhibit irrelevant information (location)
  17. Theory of Attention : Capacity Sharing Theory
    • People possess a pool of resources for information processing
    • Processing on 2 tasks can occur at the same time
    • Performance will suffer when the amount of required resources exceeds the amount of available resources
    • The allocation of resources can be flexible
  18. Theory of Attention : Single Channel "Bottleneck" Theory
    • People possess a single mechanism or neural structure for information processing
    • Only 1 source of information can be processed at a time
    • Processing of other sources of information must be delayed until the 'bottleneck' becomes available
  19. Psychological Refraction Period (PRP) Paradigm
    *If two stimuli are very close together in time, the reaction time to the second task slows down*

    eg. 2 punches in boxing; the second punch will have a slower reaction time
  20. Difference between deception & PRP
    • PRP - has 2 responses
    • Deception - must inhibit fake move and only react to the 1 final move

    *Deception is NOT an example of the PRP effect
  21. Response Complexity and Reaction Time
    • *RT increases as tasks get more complicated
    • -there are more things to process
  22. Henry and Rogers (1960)
    • How the complexity of a movement affects RT:
    • -*RT increases as response complexity increases*
  23. 'Motor Drum' Theory
    The more complex the response, the more complicated the memory drum program
  24. One Target Advantage (OTA)
    Faster movement time to target 1 when you only have to perform one movement
  25. Movement Constraint Hypothesis
    • Error increases as movement increases (if not adjusted)
    • In order to hit the 2nd target accurately, need to be more accurate (constrained) at the first target
    • Increase in MT2
  26. Movement Integration Hypothesis
    • Construct movement to both targets prior to response initiation
    • Store in short-term memory
    • Movement commands to 2nd target are implemented during movement to first target
    • Interference at executive level
    • Dual-task interference
  27. 2 exceptions when OTA does not occur
    • Small Targets - time will increase (so small, you have to do one then the other)
    • Reversal In Direction
  28. *Factors for Whether we use feedback*
    • Practice
    • Movement Time
    • Accuracy
  29. Woodworth (1899) - How long does it take to process visual feedback?
    *about 100 milliseconds*
  30. Proteau (1987) - Aiming Movement
    *People become more dependent on the feedback that is available during practice*

    *Practice with visual feedback is MORE important*
  31. Generalised Motor Program
    • Area under the force = velocity
    • ---To make it 2x as fast, you need 2x as much area
    • Invariant Features (remains the same)
    • 1) Relative Timing
    • 2) Relative Force
    • Parameters (change)
    • 1) Overall Time
    • 2) Overall Force
  32. 4 Advantages of Generalised Motor Programs
    • 1) enhances learning
    • 2) enhances motor selection
    • 3) enchances deception
    • 4) decreases reaction time
  33. Where do we store coordination/generalised motor program?
    • In Phase: the same muscles on each side (homologous muscles) contract simultaneously
    • Out Of Phase: homologous muscles contract alternatively

    • *In Phase is more stable
    • *If you are contracting an arm and a leg, spacial coding is more dominant
    • ---2 arms = muscles dominate
    • ---1 arm + 1 leg = spacial info dominate

    coordination for locomotion is stored in muscles and spinal cord
  34. Stages of Learning: Cognitive Stage
    • Idea of the movement
    • Get skill in ballpark
    • Large errors
    • Varied errors
    • Attention demanding
    • Dual-task interference
  35. Stages of Learning: Associative Stage
    • Refine the skill
    • -error detecting (from feel of the movement)
    • -error correct
    • Smaller errors
    • More consistent errors
    • Attention demanding
  36. Stages of Learning: Autonomous Stage (automatic)
    • Fast
    • Not attention demanding
    • No dual-task interference
    • Rule based - to - memory retrieval
  37. Name 3 factors that characterize Automatic Processing and 3 factors that characterize Non-automatic Processing
  38. Schema Theory *Four Items*
    • 1) Initial Conditions (eg. slope of the green)
    • 2) Movement Commands (eg. force, direction)
    • 3) Movement Outcome (eg. long, short, left, right)
    • 4) Sensory Consequences (eg. how it felt)
  39. *Recall Schema*
    Relationship between movement commands and the outcome

    Purpose: to adapt to new situations
  40. *Recognition Schema*
    • Purpose: enables you to detect your own errors
    • --How? : Subjective Reinforcement: Comparison between expected sensory consequences and the actual feedback

    Most critical in Associative stage of learning

    Expected Sensory Consequences: feeling associated with the correct action (what it should feel like)
  41. Constant Vs. Variable Practice
    Constant: only rehearse 1 variation of a task/skill during a session

    Variable: a number or many skills are rehearsed during a session
  42. *What happens to constant vs variable practice over time?*
    • Variable practice allows subject to learn a task more effectively in the long run
    • - allowed better transfer to a novel task
  43. *Why variable practice is better than constant*
    Variable practice produces a better schema than constant practice
  44. Blocked vs. Random Practice
    • Blocked: repeatedly rehearse the same task (then move on to another task)
    • - you know what you are going to do in the next practice

    • Random: perform a number of different tasks in no particular order
    • -don't know what's going to happen, so you can't prepare for it

    • Early in practice: block is better than random
    • Retention: where they don't know what's going to happen
  45. *Contextual Interference Effect (CI effect)*
    happens in blocked vs random studies

    better practice in blocked groups, then better retention in random groups

    Random practice leads to better learning
  46. Reconstruction Hypothesis
    Forgetting leads to reconstruction, which in turn leads to better learning (long term)

    • In random practice:
    • - person switches from task A to task B
    • - forget what they did on task A to concentrate on task B
    • - when they have to do A again, they have to generate the plan for the task again
  47. Blocked Vs Random Practice and Stages of Learning
    • Attention demand in cognitive stage (beginners) is HIGH
    • Attention demand in random practice is also HIGH
    • Random practice during cognitive stage = attention overload and interference between movements
    • Blocked practice is better in early stages of learning. Once skills are stabilised they can switch to random practice
  48. Serial Practice
    • Skill changes from trial to trail, the the ordering of the skill doesn't change
    • Leads to better learning cuz you don't always know what's coming next
    • Behaves like Random
  49. Best form of progression when learning
    Blocked to Serial to Random
  50. *2 factors to determine if a skill is broken down:*
    • 1) Task complexity (number of components)
    • 2) Task organisation (dependency between parts
  51. Reasons for breaking motor skills into parts
    • To eliminate burden of repeating the simpler parts of the entire task
    • Task is too difficult to grasp as a whole
    • Task is potentially dangerous
  52. Progressive-Part Practice
    If a skill has 3 parts (A, B, C) it may be better to practice the skill progressively

    • Example:
    • -Practice A
    • -Practice B
    • -Practice A,B
    • -Practice C
    • -Practice A,B,C
  53. Inherent Feedback
    sensory info that normally occurs as a result of individuals producing a movement

    can occur outside (exteroception) or from within (proprioception) the body
  54. Augmented Feedback
    • Sensory info from outside source
    • supplied in addition to intrinsic info
    • 2 categories of augmented feedback:
    • 1) knowledge of results
    • 2) knowledge of preformance
  55. Knowledge of Results (KR)
    • extrinsic info that tells learners something about the the success of their actions
    • provided after the action is completed

    • example: Penalty Kick in football
    • Did the ball go in? Yes/No
  56. Knowledge of Performance (KP)
    • extrinsic feedback that provides the performers with info about the pattern of the movement
    • sometimes referred to as kinematic feedback

    example: "that punch was really slow" "you did not lift your knees high enough"
  57. Differences & Similarities between KR and KP
    • KR:
    • info about outcome in terms of environmental goal
    • often redundant with intrinsic feedback
    • KP:
    • info about movement production/patterning (kinematic)
    • usually distinct from intrinsic feedback
    • Same:
    • Verbal
    • extrinsic
    • post-response
  58. Amount of feedback (100% vs 50%)
    100% feedback produces less error during practice, but more during retention

    50% feedback produced less error at retention because they learn to process their own proprioceptive feedback
  59. Guidance hypothesis
    • If learner receives augmented feedback after every trial (100%) then it will 'guide the learner to perform the move correctly
    • but, as soon as the feedback is taken away, there is poor success because they depended on augmented feedback all the time

    • By receiving augmented feedback less frequently during practice, it encourages the learner to engage in more beneficial learning strategies
    • -learner doesn't become dependent on augmented feedback
  60. How much feedback to give during each stage of learning:
    • Cognitive stage: High frequency of feedback
    • Associative Stage: reduced amount, so they can develop their intrinsic feedback and to enhance the recognition schema
  61. Summary Feedback
    Feedback given after a series of performance attempts that provides learner with info about each of the attempts together

    • Summary of 5 is better than 1 due to the guidance hypothesis
    • Summary of 5 is better than 10/15 dut to too much info and too long of an interval

    • The more complex a skill, the shorter the summary interval should be (more feedback)
    • also early in learning should have shorter summary interval
Card Set
Motor Control and Learning
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