World Geography

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Anonymous
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World Geography
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2011-04-22 15:55:59
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Geography
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Geo test two
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  1. AUSTRALIA TREATMENT OF ABORIGINES
    First humans to arrive in Australia. They established settlements throughout Australia. Later, Britain established Australia as a penal colony. For many decades, these people were discriminated. They were denied adequate education and economic opportunities, as well as land ownership. This practice is now eliminated but they still suffer. The aborigines have reclaimed vast amounts of territory however the nation remains divided on how to provide fairness and justice under these circumstances.
  2. GREAT BARRIER REEF
    Largest coral reef in the world. Australia consists of thousands of miles of coastline and pleasant beaches. This reef is located on the northeast coast. The Great Barrier Reef draws many thousands of tourists each year.
  3. NEW ZEALAND
    Similar to Australia in that isolation has developed a unique culture here. New Zealand is composed on two large islands (North & South). The center is mountainous and rugged, with some parts glaciated. The coasts are forested, with some parts having rainforest climates. Earthquakes and volcanoes are common here, due to location between plates. Capital is Auckland, located on N. Island. Most people live in coastal regions. Good economy, good schools, and low crime. Thus, it is a pleasant place to live. Suffers from environmental issues as well.
  4. MAORI
    New Zealand's aborigional people. New Zealand is in the process of attempting to give justice to these people.
  5. YELLOW AND YANGTZE RIVER VALLEYS
    This is where Chinese culture emerged. It is a very fertile area which allowed for humans to thrive and for rapid growth of populations.
  6. MANCHU DYNASTY
    The last dynasty of China which ended in 1911.
  7. HISTORIC CHINESE ISOLATION
    The Chinese have historically preferred to limit contact with outsiders. Chinese emperors sought to maintain a closed society; this was supported by the people. During the 19th century, China lost its ability to limit outside influence (Britain introduced opium).
  8. OPIUM WARS
    Opium is a powerful, addictive narcotic drug. It took control of the Chinese population. The government was unable to prevent opium from destroying its culture. Emperors eventually attempted to prevent importation which sparked war between Britain and China in 1839. This was the first of two wars, in which China lost both. These wars opened China to foreign control.
  9. MAO ZEDONG
    Communist government established in 1949 under his rule. Mao believed foreign influence was the curse to the Chinese, so then he closed China from the rest of the world. He was an oppressive leader who built a large military and brutally suppressed any perceived threat. In 1966 he created the "Cultural Revolution" which ordered elimination of anyone "elite" or "intellectual"; this resulted in the death of millions.
  10. CHINESE COMMUNISM
    China is not a democracy. The government maintains strict control over political systems. The people do not choose leaders, opposition to government and/or policies are usually brutally suppressed, strictly controls media, internet access is limited, and free speech is not allowed. Industries are state run and state owned. Private property is not allowed and economic classes are discouraged. There is a move towards bringing in private industry, investment, and capitalist institutions.
  11. XIZANG PROVINCE
    South region of western China. Better known as TIBET. People here do not consider themselves Chinese. In 1950 was invaded and China now controls this area. Tibetans seek independence.
  12. SPECIAL ECONOMIC ZONE
    Permits capitalism and free trade. Located in Pacific Rim (primary area of modern economic activity). Allows integration of free market capitalism within a Communist state.
  13. HONG KONG'S UNIQUE STATUS
    hong kong is a very large port city in southern china. it was once an important british colony (transformed into banking capital of asia). in 1997, it was returned to china. hong kong represents great contrasts of modern china as it as a very prosperous, modern "world" city, as china's traditions are opposite.
  14. MEIJI RESTORATION
    japan was long an isolated empire. in 1868, japanese government underwent dramatic transformation in that a group of reformers seized control and put japan on a path to rapid modernization and industrialization. these reformers sought to build japan into a global military and economic power.
  15. THE KOREAN WAR
    in 1950, north korea invaded south korea. the war lasted three years with US involvement. an armistice was signed and korea remains separate. the north is a communist nation and the south is a free-market democracy. years following the war, south korea has prospered while the north has not.
  16. TAIWAN AND CHINA
    taiwan is a nation that sits near the coast of china. it is known as formosa (the republic of china). the taiwan people are ethnic chinese. after communists under zedong took control, taiwan broke away and formed an independent nation. independence is a great dispute as china still claims control and the us refuses to permit china to take control (source of great tension between US and china).
  17. CREATION OF EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE (UN)
    policy created by the un that clarifies maritime and territorial rights. a nation has right to resources for the first 200 miles of its shoreline; includes fishing and oil drilling.
  18. CREATION OF HIMALAYAN MOUNTAINS
    world's tallest mountain ranges located on the northern border of south asia. extends east to west. mount everest, which sits on the border between nepal and china) is the most famous. south portions far more hospitable. in nepal, mountains form very fertile river valleys and river basins. created by tectonic activity as the indian plate is pushing into the eurasian plate.
  19. INDIA'S COLONIAL HISTORY
    india was greatly transformed by british rule. enormous natural wealth was great resource to britain. english language was taught and the british built infrastructure to better manage the colony. britain only allowed india to provide raw materials, thus industry was never developed here.
  20. CREATION OF INDIA AND PAKISTAN
    pakistan was created from 1947 partition of british india due to religious and cultural differences among cultural populations. people of present-day pakistan are predominantly muslim, while india remains largely hindu.
  21. KASHMIR
    an area of great dispute between india and pakistan. it is the region between two nations that both claim as their own. both nations have nuclear weapons, so future conflict may be disastrous.
  22. PERVES MUSHARAFF
  23. CASTE SYSTEM (INDIA)
    system created by hinduism in which every person is born into a specific social class, or caste. one cannot leave the class within his/her lifetime. consists of very rigid rules that separate. the lower classes are impoverished, provided with very little opportunities for prosperity or education-- known as "the untouchables"; considered inhuman.
  24. INDIAN OUTSOURCING
    due to the fact that millions of indian speak english and are willing to provide skilled technological services at a low cost, many american and european tech companies are sending jobs here.
  25. HO CHI MINH
    communist leader of the independence movement of vietnam. ho chi minh was closely allied with china, and so the french denied independence resulting in war in which france lost. this turmoil resulted in the division of vietnam with the north being communist and the south being a pro-western capitalist.
  26. VIETNAM WAR
    us fight against north vietnam communism. the vietnam war was an embarrassing defeat for the us, resulting in numerous deaths on both sides. vietnam unified in 1953, when saigon fell to northern forces. this war left vietnam economically devastated.
  27. POL POT
    communist leader of the khmer rouge in cambodia. he overthrew military government and wreaked havoc on the people in attempt to "purify" society. the economy collapsed, and society disintegrated into near anarchy. he was eventually overthrown however cambodia remains underdeveloped and impoverished.
  28. GHANA
    ancient african kingdom that was important in early state. located in present-day west africa. based on niger river. consisted of many ethnicities. people were expert goldsmiths and traded. in 1062, islamic armies invaded and conquered ghana and converted many inhabitants.
  29. 1884 BERLIN CONFERENCE
    representatives of europe's great powers, and the us gathered to divide africa into "spheres of influence"- without the african people's consent or regard. nations exploited resources, roads, railroads built, and political boundaries drawn. in many cases, people were mistreated. africa was not permitted to develop, remains underdeveloped to this day.
  30. SUB-SAHARAN AFRICAN RELIGION
    three primary groups that characterize this region. christianity, islam, and indigenous. during years of colonization, europeans converted millions of africans to christianity. france and portugal introduced catholicism in their colonies. britain and anglican church. islam is a powerful force. millions practice tribal religions and many practice all three. incorporated tribal beliefs and customs into worship patterns.
  31. NELSON MANDELA
    vocal activist against racial segregation of the apartheid system that denied blacks most civil liberties and economic opportunities, education, voting rights, and it forced blacks to live away from the whites. he was imprisoned for many years because of his anti activities. later elected president, now retired.
  32. DESMOND TUTU
    anglican bishop against apartheid system. also a well-known vocal activist.
  33. NIGERIAN OIL
    nigeria dominant west african state. former british colony. greatest asset is tremendous oil reserves. has not converted its oil export profits into prosperity for its people. poor nation burdened by corruption.
  34. LIBERIAN GOVERNMENT
    never a european colony. established by a group of american anti-slavery activists. plan was to send free slaves here to eliminate slavery in the US, although movement did not last. constitution similar, currency called "dollar". recently suffered from dictator charles taylor.
  35. ELLEN JOHNSON-SIRLEAF
    recently elected liberian president, elected by the people. africa's only female leader, and one of the few democratically elected.
  36. TIGRIS/EUPHRATES RIVERS
    in mesopotamia, people settled along these rivers. irrigation provided is the key to prosperity and power here, urbanization is the reward. "fertile crescent"
  37. ISLAM
    most significant institution of the middle east. emergence dramatically transformed realm. founded by mohammed. similar to christianity; differs in that he teaches that he is god's last and greatest prophet- jesus is a prophet of god, not the son of god. holy book is koran, written by him, recognized prophesy of old testament figures.
  38. OTTOMAN EMPIRE
    in 8th century, a group of middle eastern tribes loosely known as turks began to work together to expand influence. rival byzantine empire. gained territory and created vast islamic empire. became of in 1453 when city of constantinople falls to turks and byzan. collapsed. was major power in both europe and middle east until 20th century. collapsed and present state of turkey created.
  39. OPEC
    organization of middle east nations (includes nigeria and venezuela). work together to regulate price and supply of petroleum around the world. considered a "cartel". is a powerful economic force. presently controls oil prices for the benefit of member nations.
  40. OSAMA BIN LADEN
    an archconservative islamic fundamentalist that wishes to drive foreigners from middle east realm, dismantle the oil economy, and enact intolerant religious laws, and severely repress civil rights and liberties. wishes to eliminate all elements of western culture from the middle east.
  41. ASWAN DAM
    created on nile river by egyptian government in 1960's. dramatically increased egypt's food production, and generates much of its electricity. however it has disrupted natural food cycles, and creates a significant environmental impact.
  42. DARFUR SUDAN
    western region of sudan that has experienced extreme violence as a result of civil war. there is great pressure on nations to stop this genocide of peoples.
  43. MUAMMAR GADHAFI
    controversial dictator that has ruled libya since 1970's. declared himself enemy of US; supported radical islamic militants. in 1980's supported terrorist attacks. he now claims to have changed his ways, and the embargo has been lifted.
  44. CREATION OF ISRAEL
    founded in 1948 as a jewish homeland in response to horrors suffered during holocaust. created in region known as palestine. this idea supported by britain. when created, arab palestinians displaced from homes and forced into west bank.
  45. PALESTINE
    region along mediterranean coast. prior to creation, major palestinian (arab muslims).
  46. ISRAELI/PALESTINE CONFLICT
    arab nations rejected actions and condemned the removal of palestinians, and declared the creation of israel to be illegitimate. over the next several decades, jordan, syria, egypt, and lebanon fought wars with israel. in 1967, israel won major victory, and annexed sinai peninsula by force from egypt. us is close ally and strongly supports israel. the palestinians wish to create their own independent state in west bank. they frequently perform acts of terrorism on israel. both sides claim jerusalem as their own. the right of displaced palestinians to return is another cause of dispute.

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