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Define evolution. How does evolution explain both the unity and the diversity of life?
Evolution- the process by which life has changed through time.
adaptations to various ways of life explain why life is so diverse.
know fossils and their era.
Define homologous and analogous. Which represents a closer evolutionary relationship?
Homologous- similar in structure and form and has a common ancestor. ( closer in evolutionary relationship)
analogous- similar in function only.
What accounts for the many differences between chimpanzee and human skeletons? Know at least 2
- Head and torso: angle vs. vertical
- spine: c-shaped vs. s-shaped.
- pelvis: longer vs. bowl shaped.
- femur: bowl legs vs. straight
- knee joint: flat vs. arch.
What are 2 differences between chimpanzee and human skulls? What accounts for these differences?
What do teeth tell us about an animals’ diet?
- supraorbital ridge: boney vs. small smooth
- slope of frontal bone: triangular vs. smooth rounded
- teeth: all 3 omnivores vs. all neperous true carnivores.
- chin: outward vs. flat.
diet and brain are the differences
it tells us if they are omnivores or herbivores or carnivores.
How does comparative embryology help to
determine relationships between organisms?
Name 2 similarities between vertebrate embryos. Would you expect a human embryo to be more
like a chick embryo or pig embryo? Why?
Simiarities: tails, pharyneaal pouches, somites, eyes and umbilicus.
What are some basic biochemical molecules that
practically all organisms have in common?
How can this be explained?
they share DNA ATP same enzymes. 20 amino acids. common ancestors
Be able to determine degree of relatedness based on antibody-antigen reactions.
- Degree of relatedness.
- 1- human
- 2- chimpanzee
- 3- orangutan
- 4- monkey
- 5- pig.
What is the purpose of the Hardy-Weinberg
Law? In the absence of outside evolutionary agents, how would you expect gene frequencies of a large
population to change over time?
is a null model that defineds how evolution does not occur.
True or False:
the frequency of the recessive phenotype in a population equals the frequency
of the homozygous recessive genotype.
Know the Hardy-Weinberg equation and what each
“symbol” in the equation stands for. Be
able to use the equation to calculate the % homozygous recessive (q2),
recessive allele frequency (q), dominant allele frequency (p), % homozygous
dominant (p2), and % heterozygous (2pq).
- genotype frequency:
- p2+2pq+q2 = 1
- allele frequency:
- P + Q= 1
Given a set of genotypic frequencies from a
generation of a population, what would you expect the genotypic frequency to be in the next generation if the population obeys the Hardy-Weinberg Law? What about the frequencies after 5 generations? After 10 generations?
stays the same through out.
What are some examples of selection
pressures? How does selection affect
predators for food and habbit.
it changes the frequency
Distinguish between the founder effect and a bottleneck.
founder effect: due to a few individuals starting a new population. ex. extra fingers and hemophilia.
bottleneck: reduction in alleles due to population reduction. ex. northern elephant seals 1880 to 20.