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Define social psychology
the scientific study of how individuals think, feel, and behave in social situations.
Explain the advantages and disadvantages of using
social categories and implicit personality theories in forming perceptions of other people.
- social categorization: mental process of classifying people into gruops on the basis of common characteristics. ex. good for grouping them in common characteristics.
- Imlicit personaility theory: A network of assumptions or beliefs about the relationships among various types of people, traits, and behaviors. ex.. could be a bad guy, but since he is dressed nice, you don't know.
Define attribution and provide examples of the
fundamental attribution error, the actor-observer discrepancy, blaming the victim, and the self-serving bias.
a learned tendency to evaluate some object, person, or issue in a particular way.
- fundamental attribution error: drivers pulls out infront of you and you yelled out you jerk, without thinking why they did that.
- Actor-observer discrepancy: I pull out in front of someone, we say " there was something blocking my view."
- Blaming the victim: saying that the victims brought it upon themselves. Self-serving bias:Sudents makes A, they give them self credit. Gets an F, the blame it on someone else.
List the components of an attitude, and identify the conditions under which attitudes are most likely to determine behavior.
congnitive, emotional, behaviors.
- Extreme or frequently expressed.
- been formed through direct experience.
- knowledgeable about the subject.
- Have a vested interest
- anticipate a favorable outcome or response.
Define cognitive dissonance, identify how it occurs,
and discuss how it is typically resolved.
Cognitive dissance: an unpleasant state of psycholoical tension ( dissonance) that occurs when there's an inconsistency between two thoughts or perceptions (cognitons)
anxiety occurs, people start smoking.
Discuss the implications of the “ Robbers Cave” study
and the jigsaw classroom technique for combating prejudice.
Sherif's robbers cave experiment: cooperate to achieve a common goal 11 year olds.
aronson's jigsaw classroom technique: cooperation replaced competition.
Define social influence and conformity, and discuss
the findings of Solomon Asch’s research on conformity and identify the factors that influence conformity
occurs when we change our behabior, attitudes, or beliefs in response to real or imagined group pressure.
- normative social influence: desire to be liked and accepted by the group.
- information: look to group as a cource of accurate information.
- solomon asch's- people going along when they see that the answer is wrong.
- standard line vs. comparison line.
Define obedience and discuss the experimental design and results of Milgram’s obedience experiments
obedience: the performance of an action in response to the direct orders of an authority or person of higher status.
exp. teacher and learner, got the "learner'' to learn by punishment. which was the voltage shocker. the learner had a heart condition. would ask to stop cause he couldn't take it anymore. some stop others kept going. 2/3 of them did to the 450 volt.
List and explain the factors in Milgram’s original
experiments that promoted destructive obedience.
Define the bystander effect and diffusion of
responsibility, and explain how these and other factors played a role in the death of Kitty Genovese.
- bystander effect: a phenomenon in which the greater the number of people present, the less likely each individual is to help someon in distress.
- diffusion of responsibility: a phenomenon in which the presence of other people makes it less likely that any indiviual will hlp somone in distress because the obligation to intervene is shared among all the onlookers.
she was killed, cause everyone thought the other person was gonna help.
Distinguish between altruism and prosocial behavior,
and list the factors that increase the likelihood of a bystander coming to the aid of a stranger.
- altruism- self-less helping others.
- procsial behavior- helping others with a motive (our culture)
- feel good, do good.
- feeling guilty
- seeing others who are willing to help.
- perceiving the other person as deserving help.
- know how to help
- eye contact.
Explain how the presence of other people can strongly
influence individual behavior, resulting in social loafing and social striving.
Define stress and discuss the role of cognitive appraisal in the experience of stress.
A negative emotional state occurring in response to events that are perceived as taxing or exceeding a person's resources or ability to cope.
Contrast the life events approach and the daily
hassles approach as explanations of the causes of stress
- Life events & changes is not as bad as daily hassles.
- it is also a better predictor of physical illness and symptoms.
Understand Holmes & Rahe’s Social Readjustment Rating Scale and what it says about health.
any life event that required some sort of adaptation or change would create stree, wheather the life even was pleasant or unpleasant. checked within the past year.
Define conflict, and describe how different types of
conflict produce different degrees of stress
A situation in which as person feels pulled between two or more opposing desires, motives, or goals.
- approach- approach: california or florida
- approach- avoidance: party or being grounded
- (the most stressful situation.)
- avoidance- avoidance: dishes or laundry
Describe the three stages of Hans Selye’s general adaptation syndrome
Alarm stage: being able to meet the demands of stress producing events.
Resistance stage: can't deal with a new stressor.
Exhaustion stage: the body breaks down from stress.
Discuss the range of stressors that can adversely affect immune system functioning and the health risk implications of those findings, including
susceptibility to the common cold and other infections (Glaser & Kiecolt-Glaser, Marucha & colleagues, & Cohen & colleagues)
- Glaser & Kiecolt- Glaser: medical students have very high stress due to their test taking.
- Marucha & colleauges: length of time takes wound to heal. wounds were placed in mouths of students.
- Cohen & colleagues: stress and infections.
Discuss how psychological factors such as feelings of personal control (Rodin & Langer), explanatory style, and chronic negative emotions can affect our
response to stress
- personal controls: the nursing homes.
- explanatory style: positive- external, unstable & specific explanations. negative- internal, stable and & global explanations. ( it's always their fault)
- chronic negative- negative people experience more stress.
Describe the Type A behavior pattern, identifying the
component which has the greatest impact on physical health
- time urgency
- hostility (heart attacks) can predict heart disease.
- intense ambition and competitiveness.
Define social support and discuss the impact of
relationships on stress and health, noting gender differences.
The resources provided by other people in times of need.
- women are more likely to serve as providers of support.
- men- only distressed by negative events that happen to immediate family.
List problem-focused coping strategies and
emotion-focused coping strategies, and give an example of each strategy
- Problem- focused coping
- coping efforts primarily aimed at directly changing or managing a threatening or harmful stressor.
- controntive coping
- planful problem solving.
- Emotion- focused coping
- relieving or regulating the emotional impact of a stressful situation.
- escape-avoidance shooting range
- seeking social support reaching out
- distancing joking about it
- denial dont accept
- prositive reappraisal (the best) accept, looking for something positive.
Discuss gender differences in responding to stress,
including the stress contagion effect.
stress contagion effect: