medical microbiology

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medical microbiology
2011-04-22 23:19:58

dz, control/prevention, treatment, bacteria/virus/protists, symptoms
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  1. Herpes simples infection
    • Herpes simplex virus type 1
    • Herpes simplex virus type 2
  2. AID
    • HIV (infection)
    • postive sense RNA, enveloped retrovirus
  3. diptheria
    • Cornebacterium diptheriae
    • gram positive rods (grows in palisades)
  4. whooping cough
    • Bordetella petussis
    • small, aerobic, encapsulated, gram negative coccobacillus
  5. penumonias
    • Staphylococcus pneumoniae
    • gram positive
  6. tuberculosis (white plague)
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • straight or slightly curved rods
    • stain acid fast
  7. plague
    • Yersinia pestis
    • short gram negative rods
  8. lyme disease
    • Borrelia burgdorferi
    • spirochete
  9. infectious mononucleosis
    • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)
    • enveloped virus
  10. malaria
    • plasmodium spp.
    • : P. falciparum (most common)
    • : P. marlariae
    • : P. ovale (relapse can occur)
    • : P. vivax (relapse can occur)
  11. toxoplasmosis
    • Toxoplasma gondii
    • protozoan
  12. Meningitides
    • 0-2months: E. coli ; Streptococcus spp. ; other enterobacteriaceae
    • 2months-5years: Haemophilus influenza ; Neisseria meningitidis
    • 5-40years: Nerisseria meningitidis ; Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • >40years: Streptococcus pneumoniae ; Staphylococcus spp.
  13. Hansen's DZ (leprosy)
    • Mycobacterium leprae
    • acid fast bacillus
  14. Poliomyelititis (polio)
  15. Creutzfeldt-Jakob Dz
    • Transmissible spongiform encephalopath
    • prions
  16. Chaga's Dz
    • Trypanosome cruzi
    • protozoa
  17. Scarlet fever
    • (Beta hemolytic) Streptococcus pyogenes
    • gram positive
  18. chickenpox and shingles
    • Varicella-Zoster virus
    • enveloped DNA virus
  19. smallpox
    enveloped DNA virus
  20. Warts
    • Human papillomavirus (HPV)
    • naked DNA
  21. other bite infections
    • Eikenella corrodens
    • Gram negative bacillus
  22. dental plaque and dental caries
    • Streptococcus mutans (most common)
    • gram positive cocci
  23. peptic ulcers
    • Helicobacter pylori
    • gram negative
    • curved spirillium
  24. traveler's diarrhea
    • Escherichia coli
    • Gram negative bacillus
  25. Amebiasis
    • Entamoeba histolytica
    • cysts
  26. pseudomembranous colitis
    • Clostridium difficile
    • gram negative anaerobic rod
  27. hepatitides
    • HAV: naked RNA
    • HBV: enveloped DNA (chronic)
    • HCV: enveloped RNA (chronic)
    • HDV: RNA subviral satellite
    • HEV: naked RNA
  28. bacterial endocarditis
    Staphylococcus or Streptococcus spp.
  29. ascending UTI
    • Escherichia coli
  30. Toxic shock syndrome
    • Staphylococcus aureus
    • Gram positive cocci
  31. gonorrhea
    • Neisseria gonorrhoeae
    • gram negative, spherical or oval diplococcus with flattened adjecent sides (like a pair of coffee beans facing each other)
  32. syphillis
    • Treponema pallidum
    • spirochete
  33. chlamydiosis
    • Chlamydia trachomatic
    • tiny coccus most like a gram negative
  34. control/prevention for chickenpox and shingles
    • vaccine available
    • diluted virus-- but since there is a latent stage to the virus the dz could be reactivated from the vaccine
  35. control/prevention of smallpox
    • acquired immunity from cowpox infers immunity from smallpox
    • vaccine available
  36. prevention/control warts
    client education
  37. control/prevention for dental plaque and caries
    • vaccine in development
    • fluoride to strengthen teeth
    • brush and floss
  38. control/prevention for amebias
    sanitary handling of water and food
  39. control/prevention for hepatitis
    • HAV and HBV: vaccine available
    • get vaccinated with HBV for protection from HDV as well
  40. control/prevention for ascending UTI
    good personal hygiene and complete emptying of the bladder
  41. control/prevention for gonorrhea
    avoid sexual contact with infected individuals
  42. control/prevention of AIDS
    • public education
    • vaccine in trial
  43. control/prevention for diptheria
    DTP vaccine
  44. control/prevention for whoopig cough
    • pertussis whole cell vaccine (not entirely safe)
    • recovery confers immunity but not for a lifetime
  45. control/prevention for pneumonia
    • following recovery immunity lasts for months
    • vaccine available but you need to be revaccinated every 10 years (5-7 in older patients)
  46. control/prevention for tuberculosis
    vaccine available but not approved in the US
  47. control/prevention for plague
    • vaccine available
    • control rat population
    • maintain surveillance on infected rodent populations
  48. control/prevention for lyme dz
    • vaccine available one for dogs is better
    • avoid tick bites by wearing a hat, long sleeves, long pats, ad socks pulled over the bottom of the pats when in tick infested areas
    • tick repellant
  49. control/prevention of toxoplasmosis
    • pregnant women should avoid raw meat and cat feces (changing the kitty litter box)
    • cats should be kept out of sand boxes
  50. control/prevention for hansens dz
    • no vaccine available
    • long incubation period makes it impossible to test effectivness
    • avoid contact
  51. prevention for poliomyelitis
    vaccine availabl (inactivated virus)
  52. control for chaga's dz
    • control of reduviid vectors
    • treating homes with insecticides
  53. scarlet fever (damage)
    • non-productive cough
    • fever, chills, myalgia
    • diffuse confluent red rash on trunk and upper thigh
    • "strawberry" tongue
  54. chickenpoc & shingles (damage)
    • mild itching to continuous severe pain
    • headaches, fever, ad malaise
    • shingles--damaged nerve endings cause intense inflammation and produce a painful rash (form a band of blisters from spinal column to sternum)
  55. smallpox (damage)
    • infects phagocytic cells and later blood cells which then spreads to skin cells, causing pus filled vesicles
    • fever, backache, and headache
    • vesicles appear first in the mouth and throat and later spread elsewhere
  56. traveler's diarrhea (damage)
    • abdominal cramping, non-blood diarrhea, which usually becomes bloody on the seond or third day (or never)
    • vomiting and little fever
    • 4-5 loose stools per day for 3 or 4 days
  57. amebiasis (damage)
    • after passage through stomach and small intestine cysts rupture and release amoeboid trophozoite in the the colon.
    • which then reproduce asexually
    • feed on the bacteria that make up the normal microflora
    • once they enter the intestinal mucosa, the parasites multiply and cause significant ulceration and abdominal tenderness
    • 30 or more bowl movements per day
    • dehydration
  58. pseudomembranous colitis (damage)
    • nosocomial infection
    • develop in patients who have undergone abdominal or intestinl surgery and in those whose gastrointestinal mirobiota has been changed by use of antibiotics
    • abdominal cramps, diarrhea, fever, electrolyte imbalance toxin megacolon (dilution of colon), and perforation of colon
  59. hepatitides (damage)
    • HBV and HCV chronic infections cause cirrhosis or cancer
    • HEV is severe in pregnant women
    • HDV requires co-infection with HBV
  60. bacterial endocarditis (damage)
    • organisms from another body site of infection are trasorted to the heart
    • a vegetation dvelops (exposed collogen fibers on damaged vavular surfaces trigger fibrin deposits--transient bacteria attach to fibrin and from bacteria-fibrin mass
    • vegetation interferes with the conduction of normal electic impulses across the heart
    • deforms heart valves, decreases flexibility, and prevents them from closing completely
  61. ascending UTI (damage)
    • frequent and urgen urination
    • sometimes pus in urine
    • inflammation of urethra and bladder causes painful urination
    • women are more susceptible than men from having a shorter urethra
  62. toxic shock syndrome (damage)
    • (abrasive tampons that were left in the vagina for too long which can cause small tears in the vaginal wall ad provide appropriate conditions for bacteria to multiply)
    • organisms enter the blood or grow in accumulated menstral flow in tampons.
    • produce exotoxin X which enhanced the effects of an endotoxin
    • fever
    • low blood pressure (shock)
    • red rash most predominantly on the trunk which will later peel
    • death can occur from shock
  63. gonorrhea (damage)
    • attachment pili allows it to attach to eithelial cells in the uinary tract so that they are not swpt out from the passage of urine.
    • can attach to sperm and get into the upper reproductive tract which can cause PID in women
    • produce endotoins that promote inflammation and damages the mucosa in fallopian tubes
    • releae an enzyme that an cleave secretory IgA
    • puss dripping from urethra is common in males
    • eye infections can occur (if gotten in eye)
    • if in joints cause arthritis
  64. syphilis (damage)
    • incubation stage: over a period of 2-6 weeks (spread throughout the body)
    • primary stage: imflammatory responce at the site of infection auses formation of a hard, painless, non-discharging lesion
    • primary latent period: all external signs go away
    • secondary stage: symptoms reappear up to 5 years later. produce coper colored rash, particularly on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet, various pustule rashes and skin euptions. painful, whitish mucous patches appear on tongue, cheek, and gums
    • secondary latent period: all symptoms disappear. can last for a life time
    • tertiary stage: permanent damage. neural damage can occur includin: thickening of meninges, usteady gait, inability to walk, paralysis or insanity
    • cogenital syphillis: notches incisors perforated palate, bowing of long bone, ages face, and saddle nose
  65. herpes simples infections (damage)
    • HSV-1: fever and cold sores
    • HSV-2: genital herpes
    • produce lesions
    • lesions are painful but heal completely in 2-3 weeks without scarring (unless theres a secondary infection)
    • latent period--stores in ganglion nerve and can be reactivated spontaneously.
    • when reactivated lesions always occur in the same location
  66. AID (damage)
    • infects CD4-T helpes, macrophages, and dendritic cells
    • infected cells induce fusion with healthy cells
    • 200-250 CD4 t-helper/ microliters is aids <200 is still HIV
  67. diptheria (damage)
    • toxin inhibits protein synthesis, leading to cell death
    • the organisms, damages cells, and blood cells combine to form a pseudomembrane
    • removing it leaves a raw bleeding surface (can suffocate from blood down esophogus) and it will be covered by another pseudomembrane
    • pseudomembrane can block airway causing suffocation
  68. whooping cough (damage)
    • produce endotoxin, exotoxin, ad hemagglutins
    • catarrhall stage: fever sneezing vomiting, and a mild dry persistant cough
    • paroxysmall stage: mucous and masses of bacteria fill the airway nd imobolize the cillia. violoent paroxysmall coughing begins
    • convalescent stage: milder coughing can continue for seeral months vefore it eventually subsides (secondary infections are common)
  69. pneumonia (damage)
    • organisms colonize the UPT and then enter the LRT accidentaly during a deep breath or supresssed cough or by means of a large amount of mucous
    • lobar pneumonia: fibrin deposits. when they solidify they cause blokage. inflammation of the pleural membranes cause painful breathing
    • bronchial pneumonia: begins in the bronchii an can spread to alveoli (often appears as a secondary infection)
  70. tuberculosis (damage)
    • once inhaled they multiply inside WBC that have phagocytized them which rupture and releas more infected organisms.
    • acute inflammatory respoce occurs
    • a large quantitiy of fluid is release, producing pneumonia like symptoms
    • lesions heal, but more often produce massive tissue neurosis or solidify to become chronic granulomas
    • hypersensitivity
    • can lead to bloody sputum if lesions appear near vessels
    • with age granulomas can re-open reactivating the dz
    • tuberculosis of the bones can cause extensive erosion (especially in the spine)
  71. toxoplasmosic (damage)
    • cause mild lymph node inflammation
    • can be trasferred across plaenta causing still births, blindness, mental retardation, and possible schizophrenia
  72. hansen's dz (damage)
    • Tuberculoid: skin lose pigment and sensation (incubation period of 2-5 years)
    • lepromatous: granulomatous responce causes enlarged disfiguring lesions (incubation period of 9-12 years)
    • destroys peripheral tissue and skin and mucoud membranes
    • as it progresses it deforms hands a feet
    • severe lepromatous dz erodes bones: fingers and toes become needle like, pits develope in the skull, nasal bones destroyes, and teeth fall out
  73. poliomyelitits (damage)
    • high fever, back pain, and muscle spasms
    • patial or complete paralysis in a relaxed state if it eaches the CNS
  74. chaga's dz
    • transmitted from reduviid bug -- bites host near eye and deficates, depositing infection parasites on the skin
    • when you wipe at your eye you spread the parasite to your eye or in the bite wound
    • parasite moves to lymph nodes, divide and form pseudocytes. when they rupture they cause tissue necrosis and inflammation
    • acute: sever anemia, muscle pin, and nervous disorders
    • chronic: mild disease and sometimes asymptomatic but causes enlargment of various organs
    • -digestive tract: slows or stop muscle contraction
    • -heart:irregular heart beat and accumulation of fluid
    • -CNS: paralysis